Section: Genomics
Topic: Genetics/Genomics, Microbiology, Ecology

Gut microbial ecology of Xenopus tadpoles across life stages

10.24072/pcjournal.53 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article no. e41.

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Background: The microorganism world living in amphibians is still largely under-represented and under-studied in the literature. Among anuran amphibians, African clawed frogs of the Xenopus genus stand as well-characterized models with an in-depth knowledge of their developmental biological processes including their metamorphosis. In this study, we analyzed the succession of microbial communities and their activities across diverse body habitats of Xenopus tropicalis using different approaches including flow cytometry and 16s rDNA gene metabarcoding. We also evaluated the metabolic capacity of the premetamorphic tadpoles gut microbiome using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing. Results: We analyzed the bacterial components of the Xenopus gut microbiota, the adult gut biogeography, the succession of communities during ontogeny, the impact of the alimentation in shaping the tadpoles gut bacterial communities and the transmission of skin and fecal bacteria to the eggs. We also identified the most active gut bacteria and their metabolic contribution to tadpole physiology including carbohydrate breakdown, nitrogen recycling, essential amino-acids and vitamin biosynthesis. Conclusions: We present a comprehensive new microbiome dataset of a laboratory amphibian model. Our data provide evidences that studies on the Xenopus tadpole model can shed light on the interactions between a vertebrate host and its microbiome. We interpret our findings in light of bile acids being key molecular components regulating the gut microbiome composition during amphibian development and metamorphosis. Further studies into the metabolic interactions between amphibian tadpoles and their microbiota during early development and metamorphosis should provide useful information on the evolution of host-microbiota interactions in vertebrates.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.53
Type: Research article

Scalvenzi, Thibault 1; Clavereau, Isabelle 1; Bourge, Mickaël 2; Pollet, Nicolas 1

1 Evolution, Génomes, Comportement & Ecologie, Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, IRD, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2 Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, CEA, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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     title = {Gut microbial ecology of {\protect\emph{Xenopus}} tadpoles across life stages},
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%A Bourge, Mickaël
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Scalvenzi, Thibault; Clavereau, Isabelle; Bourge, Mickaël; Pollet, Nicolas. Gut microbial ecology of Xenopus tadpoles across life stages. Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article  no. e41. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.53.

PCI peer reviews and recommendation, and links to data, scripts, code and supplementary information: 10.24072/pci.genomics.100005

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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