Animal Science

Effects of feeding treatment on growth rate and performance of primiparous Holstein dairy heifers

10.24072/pcjournal.14 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article no. e35.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI

The objective of this study was to investigate effects of feeding-rearing programs that aim for first calving at 20-27 months (mo) of age on growth, reproduction and production performance of Holstein cows at nulliparous and primiparous stages. We hypothesised that, in a seasonal autumn-calving strategy, heifers born late in the season could catch up to the growth of heifers born earlier and be inseminated during the same period, at a body weight (BW) of at least 370 kg. This approach would result in first calving age at 21-22 mo of age without impairing their later performance. To test this hypothesis, we studied 217 heifers over 3 years. They were split into three treatment groups: control feeding (SD), an intensive-plane diet (ID1) from birth to 6 mo of age or an intensive-plane diet from birth to one year of age. Heifers in groups SD and ID1 were born from September until the end of November, while those in ID2 were born later. The present study showed that late-born heifers (ID2) could catch up with the growth of the others due to the feeding treatment, although they were still 42 kg lighter than the SD and ID1 heifers at first calving. No difference in reproductive performance was observed among groups. Once primiparous, the cows reared with the ID2 treatment tended to produce less milk than SD and ID1 cows (ca. 400 kg less on a 305 d basis throughout lactation), and no differences in milk composition, feed intake, body condition score or BW were observed among groups. Age at first service (AFS) was classified a posteriori into three classes: 12.5 (AFS12.5), 14.0 (AFS14.0) and 15.5 mo (AFS15.5) of age. Heifers in AFS12.5 grew faster than those in AFS14.0 and AFS15.5. Once primiparous, the AFS12.5 cows tended to produce less milk at peak than AFS14.0 and AFS15.5 cows (ca. 1.5 kg/d less) although no difference in total milk yield during lactation was observed. No differences in milk composition, feed intake, body condition score or BW were observed among groups. These results support the conclusion that the feeding treatment can enable late-born heifers to catch up to the growth of heifers born earlier in the season. This strategy results in an earlier first calving that does not impair their reproductive performance but does decrease milk yield slightly during first lactation. Future studies should investigate long-term effects of this strategy.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.14
Le Cozler, Yannick 1; Jurquet, Julien 2; Bedere, Nicolas 1

1 PEGASE, INRAE, Institut Agro, 35590, Saint Gilles, France
2 Institut de l’Elevage, Monvoisin, 35652 Le Rheu, France
@article{10_24072_pcjournal_14,
     author = {Le Cozler, Yannick and Jurquet, Julien and Bedere, Nicolas},
     title = {Effects of feeding treatment on growth rate and performance of primiparous {Holstein} dairy heifers},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e35},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {1},
     year = {2021},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.14},
     url = {https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.14/}
}
TY  - JOUR
TI  - Effects of feeding treatment on growth rate and performance of primiparous Holstein dairy heifers
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021///
VL  - 1
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  - https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.14/
UR  - https://doi.org/10.24072/pcjournal.14
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.14
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_14
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%T Effects of feeding treatment on growth rate and performance of primiparous Holstein dairy heifers
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2021
%V 1
%I Peer Community In
%U https://doi.org/10.24072/pcjournal.14
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.14
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_14
Le Cozler, Yannick; Jurquet, Julien; Bedere, Nicolas. Effects of feeding treatment on growth rate and performance of primiparous Holstein dairy heifers. Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article  no. e35. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.14. https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.14/

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.animsci.100002

[1] Abeni, F.; Calamari, L.; Stefanini, L.; Pirlo, G. Effects of Daily Gain in Pre- and Postpubertal Replacement Dairy Heifers on Body Condition Score, Body Size, Metabolic Profile, and Future Milk Production, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 83 (2000) no. 7, pp. 1468-1478 | Article

[2] Abeni, F.; Petrera, F.; Le Cozler, Y. Effects of feeding treatment on growth rates, metabolic profiles and age at puberty, and their relationships in dairy heifers, Animal, Volume 13 (2019) no. 5, pp. 1020-1029 | Article

[3] Agabriel, J.; Meschy, F. Alimentation des veaux et génisses d’élevage, Alimentation des bovins, ovins et caprins ( 2007), pp. 75-87

[4] Bach, A. Associations between several aspects of heifer development and dairy cow survivability to second lactation, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 94 (2011) no. 2, pp. 1052-1057 | Article

[5] Bach, A.; Ahedo, J. Record Keeping and Economics of Dairy Heifers, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, Volume 24 (2008) no. 1, pp. 117-138 | Article

[6] Bartlett, K. S.; McKeith, F. K.; VandeHaar, M. J.; Dahl, G. E.; Drackley, J. K. Growth and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replacers containing different amounts of protein at two feeding rates1, Journal of Animal Science, Volume 84 (2006) no. 6, pp. 1454-1467 | Article

[7] Bazin, S.; Augeard, P.; Carteau, M.; Champion, H.; Chilliard, Y.; Cuylle, G.; Disenhaus, C.; Durand, G.; Espinasse, R.; Gascoin, A.; Godineau, M.; Jouanne, D.; Ollivier, O.; Remond, B. Grille de notation de l’état d’engraissement des vaches pie-noires. Institut Technique de l’Elevage Bovin, Paris, France., 1984

[8] Boulton, A.; Rushton, J.; Wathes, D. An empirical analysis of the cost of rearing dairy heifers from birth to first calving and the time taken to repay these costs, Animal, Volume 11 (2017) no. 8, pp. 1372-1380 | Article

[9] Brickell, J.; McGowan, M.; Wathes, D. Effect of management factors and blood metabolites during the rearing period on growth in dairy heifers on UK farms, Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 36 (2009) no. 2, pp. 67-81 | Article

[10] Byerley, D. J.; Staigmiller, R. B.; Berardinelli, J. G.; Short, R. E. Pregnancy Rates of Beef Heifers Bred Either on Puberal or Third Estrus, Journal of Animal Science, Volume 65 (1987) no. 3, pp. 645-650 | Article

[11] Cutullic, E.; Delaby, L.; Gallard, Y.; Disenhaus, C. Dairy cows’ reproductive response to feeding level differs according to the reproductive stage and the breed, Animal, Volume 5 (2011) no. 5, pp. 731-740 | Article

[12] Esslemont, R.; Kossaibati, M. The Cost of respiratory diseases in dairy heifer calves, The Bovine Practitioner, Volume 33 (2019), pp. 174-178 | Article

[13] Ettema, J.; Santos, J. Impact of Age at Calving on Lactation, Reproduction, Health, and Income in First-Parity Holsteins on Commercial Farms, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 87 (2004) no. 8, pp. 2730-2742 | Article

[14] Hammon, H.; Schiessler, G.; Nussbaum, A.; Blum, J. Feed Intake Patterns, Growth Performance, and Metabolic and Endocrine Traits in Calves Fed Unlimited Amounts of Colostrum and Milk by Automate, Starting in the Neonatal Period, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 85 (2002) no. 12, pp. 3352-3362 | Article

[15] Hill, T.; Bateman, H.; Aldrich, J.; Schlotterbeck, R. Effect of milk replacer program on digestion of nutrients in dairy calves, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 93 (2010) no. 3, pp. 1105-1115 | Article

[16] INRA, Alimentation des ruminants, Editions Quae, Versailles, France, 2018, 728 pages

[17] INRA, Alimentation des bovins, ovins et caprins – besoins des animaux – Valeurs des aliments – Tables INRA 2007, Editions Quae, Versailles, France, 2007

[18] Jasper, J.; Weary, D. Effects of Ad Libitum Milk Intake on Dairy Calves, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 85 (2002) no. 11, pp. 3054-3058 | Article

[19] Johnson, K. F.; Nair, R. V.; Wathes, D. C. Comparison of the effects of high and low milk-replacer feeding regimens on health and growth of crossbred dairy heifers, Animal Production Science, Volume 59 (2019) no. 9, pp. 1648-1659 | Article

[20] Khan, M.; Weary, D.; von Keyserlingk, M. Invited review: Effects of milk ration on solid feed intake, weaning, and performance in dairy heifers, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 94 (2011) no. 3, pp. 1071-1081 | Article

[21] Krpálková, L.; Cabrera, V.; Kvapilík, J.; Burdych, J.; Crump, P. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 97 (2014) no. 10, pp. 6573-6582 | Article

[22] Le Cozier, Y.; Ringmar-Cederberg, E.; Johansen, S.; Dourmad, J. Y.; Neil, M.; Sterna, S. Effect of feeding level during rearing and mating strategy on performance of Swedish Yorkshire sows. 1. Growth, puberty and conception rate, Animal Science, Volume 68 (2016) no. 3, pp. 355-363 | Article

[23] Le Cozler, Y.; Lollivier, V.; Lacasse, P.; Disenhaus, C. Rearing strategy and optimizing first-calving targets in dairy heifers: a review, Animal, Volume 2 (2008) no. 9, pp. 1393-1404 | Article

[24] Lin, C.; McAllister, A.; Batra, T.; Lee, A.; Roy, G.; Vesely, J.; Wauthy, J.; Winter, K. Production and Reproduction of Early and Late Bred Dairy Heifers, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 69 (1986) no. 3, pp. 760-768 | Article

[25] Meyer, M.; Capuco, A.; Ross, D.; Lintault, L.; Van Amburgh, M. Developmental and Nutritional Regulation of the Prepubertal Heifer Mammary Gland: I. Parenchyma and Fat Pad Mass and Composition, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 89 (2006) no. 11, pp. 4289-4297 | Article

[26] Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; van Werven, T.; Mourits, M.; Hogeveen, H. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 96 (2013) no. 2, pp. 981-992 | Article

[27] Morrison, S.; Wicks, H.; Fallon, R.; Twigge, J.; Dawson, L.; Wylie, A.; Carson, A. Effects of feeding level and protein content of milk replacer on the performance of dairy herd replacements, Animal, Volume 3 (2009) no. 11, pp. 1570-1579 | Article

[28] Mourits, M.; Huirne, R.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Kristensen, A.; Galligan, D. Economic optimization of dairy heifer management decisions, Agricultural Systems, Volume 61 (1999) no. 1, pp. 17-31 | Article

[29] Petersson, K.-J.; Gustafsson, H.; Strandberg, E.; Berglund, B. Atypical Progesterone Profiles and Fertility in Swedish Dairy Cows, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 89 (2006) no. 7, pp. 2529-2538 | Article

[30] Pirlo, G.; Capelletti, M.; Marchetto, G. Effects of Energy and Protein Allowances in the Diets of Prepubertal Heifers on Growth and Milk Production, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 80 (1997) no. 4, pp. 730-739 | Article

[31] Quigley, J.; Wolfe, T.; Elsasser, T. Effects of Additional Milk Replacer Feeding on Calf Health, Growth, and Selected Blood Metabolites in Calves, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 89 (2006) no. 1, pp. 207-216 | Article

[32] R Core Team, , R Development Core Team, Vienna, Austria, 2019

[33] Robinson, J. J. Nutrition in the Reproduction of Farm Animals, Nutrition Research Reviews, Volume 3 (2007) no. 1, pp. 253-276 | Article

[34] Shamay, A.; Homans, R.; Fuerman, Y.; Levin, I.; Barash, H.; Silanikove, N.; Mabjeesh, S. Expression of Albumin in Nonhepatic Tissues and its Synthesis by the Bovine Mammary Gland, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 88 (2005) no. 2, pp. 569-576 | Article

[35] Smith, J. M.; Van Amburgh, M. E.; Díaz, M. C.; Lucy, M. C.; Bauman, D. E. Effect of nutrient intake on the development of the somatotropic axis and its responsiveness to GH in Holstein bull calves1, Journal of Animal Science, Volume 80 (2002) no. 6, pp. 1528-1537 | Article

[36] Soberon, F.; Raffrenato, E.; Everett, R.; Van Amburgh, M. Preweaning milk replacer intake and effects on long-term productivity of dairy calves, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 95 (2012) no. 2, pp. 783-793 | Article

[37] Tozer, P. Least-Cost Ration Formulations for Holstein Dairy Heifers By Using Linear and Stochastic Programming, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 83 (2000) no. 3, pp. 443-451 | Article

[38] Van Amburgh, M.; Drackley, J. Current perspectives on the energy and protein requirements of the preweaned calf , Calf and Heifer Rearing. P.C. Garnsworthy, ed. (2005)

[39] Van Amburgh, M.; Galton, D.; Bauman, D.; Everett, R.; Fox, D.; Chase, L.; Erb, H. Effects of Three Prepubertal Body Growth Rates on Performance of Holstein Heifers During First Lactation, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 81 (1998) no. 2, pp. 527-538 | Article

[40] Van De Stroet, D.; Calderón Díaz, J.; Stalder, K.; Heinrichs, A.; Dechow, C. Association of calf growth traits with production characteristics in dairy cattle, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 99 (2016) no. 10, pp. 8347-8355 | Article

[41] Wathes, D.; Brickell, J.; Bourne, N.; Swali, A.; Cheng, Z. Factors influencing heifer survival and fertility on commercial dairy farms, Animal, Volume 2 (2008) no. 8, pp. 1135-1143 | Article

[42] Wathes, D.; Pollott, G.; Johnson, K.; Richardson, H.; Cooke, J. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle, Animal, Volume 8 (2014), pp. 91-104 | Article

Cited by Sources: