Section: Infections
Topic: Ecology, Evolution, Population biology

Population genetics of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the sleeping sickness focus of Boffa (Guinea) before and after eight years of vector control: no effect of control despite a significant decrease of human exposure to the disease

10.24072/pcjournal.383 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 4 (2024), article no. e21.

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Human African trypanosomosis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is still a major concern in endemic countries. Its cyclical vector are biting insects of the genus Glossina or tsetse flies. In Guinea, the mangrove ecosystem contains the main HAT foci of Western Africa. There, the cyclical vector is Glossina palpalis gambiensis. A still ongoing vector control campaign (VCC) started in 2011 in the focus of Boffa, using tiny targets, with a 79% tsetse density reduction in 2016 and significant impact on the prevalence of the disease (from 0.3% in 2011 to 0.11% in 2013, 0.0352% in 2016 and 0.0097% in 2019). To assess the sustainability of these results, we have studied the impact of this VCC on the population biology of G. p. gambiensis in Boffa. We used the genotyping at 11 microsatellite markers and population genetic tools of tsetse flies from different sites and at different dates before and after the beginning of the VCC. In variance with a significant impact of VCC on the apparent densities of flies captured in the traps deployed, the global population of G. p. gambiensis displayed no variation of the sex-ratio, no genetic signature of control, and behaved as a very large population occupying the entire zone. This implies that targets deployment efficiently protected the human populations locally, but did not impact tsetse flies where targets cannot be deployed and where the main tsetse population exploits available resources. We thus recommend the pursuit of vector control measures with the same strategy, through the joint effect of VCC and medical surveys and treatments, in order to protect human populations from HAT infections until the disease can be considered as entirely eradicated from the focus.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.383
Type: Research article
Keywords: Tsetse flies; Human African Trypanosomiasis; Population structure; Effective population size; Vector control; Neglected Tropical Diseases, Tsetse flies; Human African Trypanosomiasis; Population structure; Effective population size; Vector control; Neglected Tropical Diseases, Tsetse flies; Human African Trypanosomiasis; Population structure; Effective population size; Vector control; Neglected Tropical Diseases, Tsetse flies; Human African Trypanosomiasis; Population structure; Effective population size; Vector control; Neglected Tropical Diseases, Tsetse flies; Human African Trypanosomiasis; Population structure; Effective population size; Vector control; Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kagbadouno, Moise S 1; Séré, Modou 2; Ségard, Adeline 3; Camara, Abdoulaye Dansy 1; Camara, Mamadou 1; Bucheton, Bruno 3; Bart, Jean-Mathieu 3; Courtin, Fabrice 3, 4; De Meeûs, Thierry 3; Ravel, Sophie 3

1 Programme National de Lutte contre la THA, Ministère de la Santé, Conakry, Guinée
2 University of Dédougou, Dédougou B.P. 176, Burkina Faso
3 INTERTRYP, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, IRD, Montpellier, France
4 Représentation de l'IRD au Burkina Faso, 668, avenue du Pr Joseph Ki-Zerbo-Koulouba, 01 BP 182 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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     author = {Kagbadouno, Moise S and S\'er\'e, Modou and S\'egard, Adeline and Camara, Abdoulaye Dansy and Camara, Mamadou and Bucheton, Bruno and Bart, Jean-Mathieu and Courtin, Fabrice and De Mee\^us, Thierry and Ravel, Sophie},
     title = {Population genetics of {\protect\emph{Glossina} palpalis gambiensis} in the sleeping sickness focus of {Boffa} {(Guinea)} before and after eight years of vector control: no effect of control despite a significant decrease of human exposure to the disease},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
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Kagbadouno, Moise S; Séré, Modou; Ségard, Adeline; Camara, Abdoulaye Dansy; Camara, Mamadou; Bucheton, Bruno; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Courtin, Fabrice; De Meeûs, Thierry; Ravel, Sophie. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the sleeping sickness focus of Boffa (Guinea) before and after eight years of vector control: no effect of control despite a significant decrease of human exposure to the disease. Peer Community Journal, Volume 4 (2024), article  no. e21. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.383. https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.383/

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.infections.100191

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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