First detection of herpesvirus and prevalence of mycoplasma infection in free-ranging Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni), and in potential pet vectors

10.24072/pcjournal.81 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 2 (2022), article no. e5.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI

Two types of pathogens cause highly contagious upper respiratory tract diseases (URTD) in Chelonians: testudinid herpesviruses (TeHV) and a mycoplasma (Mycoplasma agassizii). In captivity, these infections are frequent and can provoke outbreaks. Pet trade generates an international flow of tortoises, often without sanitary checking; individuals intentionally or accidentally released in the wild may spread pathogens. A better understanding of the transmission of infectious agents from captivity to wild tortoises is needed. Many exotic individuals have been introduced in populations of the endangered western Hermanns tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni), notably spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca). We assessed the presence of TeHV and mycoplasma in native western Hermanns tortoises and in potential pet vectors in south-eastern France. Using a large sample (N=572 tortoises), this study revealed, by PCR, the worrying presence of herpesvirus in 7 free-ranging individuals (3 sub-populations). Additionally, Mycoplasma agassizii was detected, by PCR, in 15 of the 18 populations sampled with a frequency ranging from 3.4% (1 of 29 tortoises) to 25% (3 of 12 tortoises). Exotic spur-thighed tortoises showed a high frequency of mycoplasma infection in captivity (18.2%) and in individuals (50%) found in native Hermanns tortoise sub-populations, suggesting that this species could be a significant vector. The paucity of information of TeHV on European tortoise URTD in natural settings, especially in combination with mycoplasma, prompts further studies. Indeed, sick tortoises remain concealed and may not be easily detected in the field. Our results indicate good health for most infected tortoises but they should be screened in the field as well as in captivity.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.81
Ballouard, Jean-marie 1; Bonnet, Xavier 2; Jourdan, Julie 1; Martinez-Silvestre, Albert 3; Gagno, Stéphane 1; Fertard, Brieuc 4; Caron, Sébastien 1

1 SOPTOM, Centre de Recherche et de Conservation des Chéloniens (CRCC), 1065 route du Luc, 83660 Carnoules, France
2 CEBC, UMR-7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79160 Villiers en Bois, France
3 Catalonian Reptile and Amphibian Rehabilitation Center (CRARC), 08783 Masquefa, Barcelona, Spain
4 Vétérinaire, Résidence Jean Moulin, 38-40, Boulevard Jean Moulin, F-06110 Le Cannet, France
     author = {Ballouard, Jean-marie and Bonnet, Xavier and Jourdan, Julie and Martinez-Silvestre, Albert and Gagno, St\'ephane and Fertard, Brieuc and Caron, S\'ebastien},
     title = {First detection of herpesvirus and prevalence of mycoplasma infection in free-ranging {Hermann{\textquoteright}s} tortoises {(<i>Testudo} hermanni</i>), and in potential pet vectors},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e5},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {2},
     year = {2022},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.81},
     url = {https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.81/}
TI  - First detection of herpesvirus and prevalence of mycoplasma infection in free-ranging Hermann’s tortoises (<i>Testudo hermanni</i>), and in potential pet vectors
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022///
VL  - 2
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  - https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.81/
UR  - https://doi.org/10.24072/pcjournal.81
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.81
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_81
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%T First detection of herpesvirus and prevalence of mycoplasma infection in free-ranging Hermann’s tortoises (<i>Testudo hermanni</i>), and in potential pet vectors
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2022
%V 2
%I Peer Community In
%U https://doi.org/10.24072/pcjournal.81
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.81
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_81
Ballouard, Jean-marie; Bonnet, Xavier; Jourdan, Julie; Martinez-Silvestre, Albert; Gagno, Stéphane; Fertard, Brieuc; Caron, Sébastien. First detection of herpesvirus and prevalence of mycoplasma infection in free-ranging Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni), and in potential pet vectors. Peer Community Journal, Volume 2 (2022), article  no. e5. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.81. https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.81/

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.zool.100007

[1] Ahne, W. Viruses of Chelonia, Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B, Volume 40 (1993) no. 1-10, pp. 35-45 | Article

[2] Auliya, M.; Altherr, S.; Ariano-Sanchez, D.; Baard, E. H.; Brown, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cantu, J.-C.; Gentile, G.; Gildenhuys, P.; Henningheim, E.; Hintzmann, J.; Kanari, K.; Krvavac, M.; Lettink, M.; Lippert, J.; Luiselli, L.; Nilson, G.; Nguyen, T. Q.; Nijman, V.; Parham, J. F.; Pasachnik, S. A.; Pedrono, M.; Rauhaus, A.; Córdova, D. R.; Sanchez, M.-E.; Schepp, U.; van Schingen, M.; Schneeweiss, N.; Segniagbeto, G. H.; Somaweera, R.; Sy, E. Y.; Türkozan, O.; Vinke, S.; Vinke, T.; Vyas, R.; Williamson, S.; Ziegler, T. Trade in live reptiles, its impact on wild populations, and the role of the European market, Biological Conservation, Volume 204 (2016), pp. 103-119 | Article

[3] Jean-Marie, B.; Raphael, G.; Fabien, R.; Aurélien, B.; Sébastien, C.; Nicolas, B.; Xavier, B. Excellent performances of dogs to detect cryptic tortoises in Mediterranean scrublands, Biodiversity and Conservation, Volume 28 (2019) no. 14, pp. 4027-4045 | Article

[4] Berry, K. H.; Christopher, M. M. Guidelines for the field evaluation of desert tortoise health and disease, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 37 (2001) no. 3, pp. 427-450 | Article

[5] Bertolero, A.; Cheylan, M.; Hailey, A.; Livoreil, B.; Willemsen, R. Testudo hermanni (Gmelin 1789) Hermann's Tortoise. In A. Rhodin P, Pritchard P, VanDijk R, Saumure K, Buhlmann J, Iverson & Mittermeier R, Conservation Biology of freshwater turtles and tortoises: a compilation project of the IUCN/SSC tortoise and freshwater turtle specialist group, Chelonian Research, Volume 5 (2011)

[6] Bonnet, X.; El Hassani, M. S.; Lecq, S.; Michel, C. L.; El Mouden, E. H.; Michaud, B.; Slimani, T. Blood mixtures: impact of puncture site on blood parameters, Journal of Comparative Physiology B, Volume 186 (2016) no. 6, pp. 787-800 | Article

[7] Brianti, E.; Dantas-Torres, F.; Giannetto, S.; Risitano, A.; Brucato, G.; Gaglio, G.; Otranto, D. Risk for the introduction of exotic ticks and pathogens into Italy through the illegal importation of tortoises, Testudo graeca, Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Volume 24 (2010) | Article

[8] Brown, D. R.; Schumacher, I. M.; Mclaughlin, L. D.; Wendland, M. B.; Brown, M. B.; Klein, P. A.; Jacobson, E. R. Application of diagnostic tests for mycoplasmal infections of desert and gopher tortoises, with management recommendations, Chelonian Conservation and Biology, Volume 4 (2002)

[9] Brown, M. B.; Schumacher, I. M.; Klein, P. A.; Harris, K.; Correll, T.; Jacobson, E. R. Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise, Infection and Immunity, Volume 62 (1994) no. 10, pp. 4580-4586 | Article

[10] Brown, M. B.; McLaughlin, G. S.; Klein, P. A.; Crenshaw, B. C.; Schumacher, I. M.; Brown, D. R.; Jacobson, E. R. Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in the Gopher Tortoise Is Caused by Mycoplasma agassizii, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Volume 37 (1999) no. 7, pp. 2262-2269 | Article

[11] Chávarri, M.; Berriatua, E.; Giménez, A.; Gracia, E.; Martínez-Carrasco, C.; Ortiz, J. M.; Ybáñez, R. R. d. Differences in helminth infections between captive and wild spur-thighed tortoises Testudo graeca in southern Spain: A potential risk of reintroductions of this species, Veterinary Parasitology, Volume 187 (2012) no. 3-4, pp. 491-497 | Article

[12] Daszak, P.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife-- Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health, Science, Volume 287 (2000) no. 5452, pp. 443-449 | Article

[13] Deem, S. L.; Karesh, W. B.; Weisman, W. Putting Theory into Practice: Wildlife Health in Conservation, Conservation Biology, Volume 15 (2001) no. 5, pp. 1224-1233 | Article

[14] DiGeronimo, P.; Hansen, C.; La'Toya, V.; Adamovicz, L.; Allender, M. Detection of mycoplasma sp. In indochinese box turtles (Cuora bourreti), Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Volume 50 (2019) no. 1 | Article

[15] Frankham, R.; Ballou, J. D.; Briscoe, D. A.; McInnes, K. H. Introduction to Conservation Genetics, Cambridge University Press, 2002 | Article

[16] Gandar, F.; Wilkie, G. S.; Gatherer, D.; Kerr, K.; Marlier, D.; Diez, M.; Marschang, R. E.; Mast, J.; Dewals, B. G.; Davison, A. J.; Vanderplasschen, A. F. C. The Genome of a Tortoise Herpesvirus (Testudinid Herpesvirus 3) Has a Novel Structure and Contains a Large Region That Is Not Required for Replication In Vitro or Virulence In Vivo, Journal of Virology, Volume 89 (2015) no. 22, pp. 11438-11456 | Article

[17] Goessling, J. M.; Guyer, C.; Godwin, J. C.; Hermann, S. M.; Sandmeier, F. C.; Smith, L. L.; Mendonça, M. T. Upper respiratory tract disease and associated diagnostic tests of mycoplasmosis in Alabama populations of Gopher tortoises, Gopherus polyphemus, PLOS ONE, Volume 14 (2019) no. 4 | Article

[18] Gracià, E.; Rodríguez-Caro, R. C.; Ferrández, M.; Martínez-Silvestre, A.; Pérez-Ibarra, I.; Amahjour, R.; Aranda, C.; Benelkadi, H. A.; Bertolero, A.; Biaggini, M.; Botella, F.; Budó, J.; Cadenas, V.; Chergi, B.; Corti, C.; Esperón, F.; Esteve-Selma, M. Ã.; Fahd, S.; García de la Fuente, M. I.; Golubović, A.; Heredia, A.; Jiménez-Franco, M. V.; Arakelyan, M.; Marini, D.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Martínez-Pastor, M. C.; Mascort, R.; Mira-Jover, A.; Pascual-Rico, R.; Perera-Leg, A.; Pfau, B.; Pinya, S.; Santos, X.; Segura, A.; Semaha, M. J.; Soler-Massana, J.; Vidal, J. M.; Giménez, A. From troubles to solutions: conservation of Mediterranean tortoises under global change, Basic and Applied Herpetology, Volume 34 (2020), pp. 5-16 | Article

[19] Griffith, B.; Scott, J.; Carpenter, J.; Reed, C. Animal translocations and potential disease transmission, Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Volume 24 (1993)

[20] Hernandez-Divers, S. M.; Hernandez-Divers, S. J.; Wyneken, J. Angiographic, Anatomic and Clinical Technique Descriptions of A Subcarapacial Venipuncture Site for Chelonians, Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery, Volume 12 (2002) no. 2, pp. 32-37 | Article

[21] Hidalgo-Vila, J.; Martínez-Silvestre, A.; Pérez-Santigosa, N.; León-Vizcaíno, L.; Díaz-Paniagua, C. High prevalence of diseases in two invasive populations of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) in southwestern Spain, Amphibia-Reptilia, Volume 41 (2020) no. 4, pp. 509-518 | Article

[22] Jacobson, E. R.; Gaskin, J. M.; Brown, M. B.; Harris, R. K.; Gardiner, C. H.; LaPointe, J. L.; Adams, H. P.; Reggiardo, C. Chronic upper respiratory tract disease of free-ranging desert tortoises (Xerobates agassizii), Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 27 (1991) no. 2, pp. 296-316 | Article

[23] Jacobson, E. Causes of mortality and diseases in tortoises: a review., Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Volume 25 (1994)

[24] Jacobson, E. R.; Berry, K. H. Mycoplasma testudineum in Free-ranging Desert Tortoises, Gopherus agassizii, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 48 (2012) no. 4, pp. 1063-1068 | Article

[25] Jacobson, E. R.; Brown, M. B.; Wendland, L. D.; Brown, D. R.; Klein, P. A.; Christopher, M. M.; Berry, K. H. Mycoplasmosis and upper respiratory tract disease of tortoises: A review and update, The Veterinary Journal, Volume 201 (2014) no. 3, pp. 257-264 | Article

[26] Jacobson, E. R.; Berry, K. H.; Wellehan, J. F. X.; Origgi, F.; Childress, A. L.; Braun, J.; Schrenzel, M.; Yee, J.; Rideout, B. Serologic and molecular evidence for Testudinid herpesvirus 2 infection in wild Agassiz's desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 48 (2012) no. 3, pp. 747-757 | Article

[27] Kane, L. P.; Allender, M. C.; Archer, G.; Dzhaman, E.; Pauley, J.; Moore, A. R.; Ruiz, M. O.; Smith, R. L.; Byrd, J.; Phillips, C. A. Prevalence of Terrapene herpesvirus 1 in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Tennessee and Illinois, USA, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 53 (2017) no. 2, pp. 285-295 | Article

[28] Kari, L.; Whitmire, W. M.; Carlson, J. H.; Crane, D. D.; Reveneau, N.; Nelson, D. E.; Mabey, D. C. W.; Bailey, R. L.; Holland, M. J.; McClarty, G.; Caldwell, H. D. Pathogenic Diversity amongChlamydia trachomatisOcular Strains in Nonhuman Primates Is Affected by Subtle Genomic Variations, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 197 (2008) no. 3, pp. 449-456 | Article

[29] Kolesnik, E.; Obiegala, A.; Marschang, R. E. Detection of Mycoplasma spp., herpesviruses, topiviruses, and ferlaviruses in samples from chelonians in Europe, Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Volume 29 (2017) no. 6, pp. 820-832 | Article

[30] Lecis, R.; Paglietti, B.; Rubino, S.; Are, B. M.; Muzzeddu, M.; Berlinguer, F.; Chessa, B.; Pittau, M.; Alberti, A. Detection and Characterization of Mycoplasma spp. and Salmonella spp. in Free-living European Tortoises (Testudo hermanni, Testudo graeca, and Testudo marginata), Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 47 (2011) no. 3, pp. 717-724 | Article

[31] Lindemann, D. M.; Allender, M. C.; Thompson, D.; Glowacki, G. A.; Newman, E. M.; Adamovicz, L. A.; Smith, R. L. Epidemiology of Emydoidea herpesvirus 1 in free-ranging Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) from Illinois, Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Volume 50 (2019) no. 3 | Article

[32] Livoreil, B. Distribution of the Endangered Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni hermanni in Var, France, and recommendations for its conservation, Oryx, Volume 43 (2009) no. 02 | Article

[33] Ljubisavljevic, K.; Dzukic, G.; Kalezić, M. L. The commercial export of the land tortoises (Testudo spp.) from the territory of the former Yugoslavia: A historical review and the impact of overharvesting on wild populations, North- Western Journal of Zoology, Volume 7 (2011)

[34] Marenzoni, M. L.; Santoni, L.; Felici, A.; Maresca, C.; Stefanetti, V.; Sforna, M.; Franciosini, M. P.; Casagrande Proietti, P.; Origgi, F. C. Clinical, virological and epidemiological characterization of an outbreak of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3 in a chelonian captive breeding facility: Lessons learned and first evidence of TeHV3 vertical transmission, PLOS ONE, Volume 13 (2018) no. 5 | Article

[35] Marschang, R. E.; Schneider, R. M. Antibodies to viruses in wild-caught spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca ) in Turkey, Veterinary Record, Volume 161 (2007) no. 3, pp. 102-103 | Article

[36] Marschang, R. E. Virology, Mader's Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery, Elsevier, 2019 | Article

[37] Martel, A.; Blahak, S.; Vissenaekens, H.; Pasmans, F. Reintroduction of Clinically Healthy Tortoises: The Herpesvirus Trojan Horse, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 45 (2009) no. 1, pp. 218-220 | Article

[38] Martínez-silvestre, A.; Cadenas, V.; Soler, J.; Martínez, D.; Pena, L.; Velarde, R. Infección por Picornavirus en tortuga mediterránea (Testudo hermanni) en un programa de conservación in situ en Cataluña, Boletin de la Asociacion Herpetologica Espanola, Volume 31 (2020)

[39] Martínez-Silvestre, A.; Mateu de Antonio, E.; Ramis, A.; Majó, N. Etiologia y descripcion clínica de la rinitis crónica en tortuga mora (Testudo graeca), Revista Española de Herpetologia, Volume 13 (1999)

[40] Martínez-Silvestre, A.; Soler Massana, J.; Solé, R.; Medina, D. Reproducción de quelonios aloctonos en Cataluña en condiciones naturales, Boletin de la Asociacion Herpetologica Espanola, Volume 12 (2001)

[41] McAuliffe, L.; Ellis, R. J.; Miles, K.; Ayling, R. D.; Nicholas, R. A. J. Biofilm formation by mycoplasma species and its role in environmental persistence and survival, Microbiology, Volume 152 (2006) no. 4, pp. 913-922 | Article

[42] Mathes, K.; Blahak, S.; Jacobson, E.; Braun, D.; Shumacher, L.; Fertard, B., Proceedings of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, Eight Annual Conference, Orlando, Florida, 18-23 September 2001, 2001

[43] Origgi, F. C. Testudinid Herpesviruses: A Review, Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery, Volume 22 (2013) no. 1 | Article

[44] Origgi, F. C.; Klein, P. A.; Mathes, K.; Blahak, S.; Marschang, R. E.; Tucker, S. J.; Jacobson, E. R. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Herpesvirus Exposure in Mediterranean Tortoises (Spur-Thighed Tortoise [ Testudo graeca ] and Hermann's Tortoise [ Testudo hermanni ]), Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Volume 39 (2001) no. 9, pp. 3156-3163 | Article

[45] Origgi, F. C.; Romero, C. H.; Bloom, D. C.; Klein, P. A.; Gaskin, J. M.; Tucker, S. J.; Jacobson, E. R. Experimental Transmission of a Herpesvirus in Greek Tortoises (Testudo graeca), Veterinary Pathology, Volume 41 (2004) no. 1, pp. 50-61 | Article

[46] Orton, J. P.; Morales, M.; Fontenele, R. S.; Schmidlin, K.; Kraberger, S.; Leavitt, D. J.; Webster, T. H.; Wilson, M. A.; Kusumi, K.; Dolby, G. A.; Varsani, A. Virus Discovery in Desert Tortoise Fecal Samples: Novel Circular Single-Stranded DNA Viruses, Viruses, Volume 12 (2020) no. 2 | Article

[47] Perez, M.; Livoreil, B.; Mantovani, S.; Boisselier, M.-C.; Crestanello, B.; Abdelkrim, J.; Bonillo, C.; Goutner, V.; Lambourdiere, J.; Pierpaoli, M.; Sterijovski, B.; Tomovic, L.; Vilaca, S. T.; Mazzotti, S.; Bertorelle, G. Genetic Variation and Population Structure in the Endangered Hermann's Tortoise: The Roles of Geography and Human-Mediated Processes, Journal of Heredity, Volume 105 (2013) no. 1, pp. 70-81 | Article

[48] Pille, F.; Caron, S.; Bonnet, X.; Deleuze, S.; Busson, D.; Etien, T.; Girard, F.; Ballouard, J.-M. Settlement pattern of tortoises translocated into the wild: a key to evaluate population reinforcement success, Biodiversity and Conservation, Volume 27 (2017) no. 2, pp. 437-457 | Article

[49] Salinas, M.; Francino, O.; Sánchez, A.; Altet, L. Mycoplasma and Herpesvirus PCR Detection in Tortoises with Rhinitis-stomatitis Complex in Spain, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Volume 47 (2011) no. 1, pp. 195-200 | Article

[50] Sandmeier, F. C.; Tracy, C. R.; duPré, S.; Hunter, K. Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) as a threat to desert tortoise populations: A reevaluation, Biological Conservation, Volume 142 (2009) no. 7, pp. 1255-1268 | Article

[51] Sandmeier, F. C.; Tracy, C. R.; Hagerty, B. E.; DuPré, S.; Mohammadpour, H.; Hunter, K. Mycoplasmal Upper Respiratory Tract Disease Across the Range of the Threatened Mojave Desert Tortoise: Associations with Thermal Regime and Natural Antibodies, EcoHealth, Volume 10 (2013) no. 1, pp. 63-71 | Article

[52] Soares, J. F.; Chalker, V. J.; Erles, K.; Holtby, S.; Waters, M.; McArthur, S. Prevalence of Mycoplasma agassizii and chelonian herpesvirus in captive tortoises (Testudo sp.) In the united kingdom, Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Volume 35 (2004) no. 1, pp. 25-33 | Article

[53] Soler, J.; Pfau, B.; Martinez-Silvestre, A. Detecting intraspecific hybrids in Testudo hermanni, Radiata, Volume 21 (2012)

[54] Stanford, C. B.; Iverson, J. B.; Rhodin, A. G.; Paul van Dijk, P.; Mittermeier, R. A.; Kuchling, G.; Berry, K. H.; Bertolero, A.; Bjorndal, K. A.; Blanck, T. E.; Buhlmann, K. A.; Burke, R. L.; Congdon, J. D.; Diagne, T.; Edwards, T.; Eisemberg, C. C.; Ennen, J. R.; Forero-Medina, G.; Frankel, M.; Fritz, U.; Gallego-García, N.; Georges, A.; Gibbons, J. W.; Gong, S.; Goode, E. V.; Shi, H. T.; Hoang, H.; Hofmeyr, M. D.; Horne, B. D.; Hudson, R.; Juvik, J. O.; Kiester, R. A.; Koval, P.; Le, M.; Lindeman, P. V.; Lovich, J. E.; Luiselli, L.; McCormack, T. E.; Meyer, G. A.; Páez, V. P.; Platt, K.; Platt, S. G.; Pritchard, P. C.; Quinn, H. R.; Roosenburg, W. M.; Seminoff, J. A.; Shaffer, H. B.; Spencer, R.; Van Dyke, J. U.; Vogt, R. C.; Walde, A. D. Turtles and Tortoises Are in Trouble, Current Biology, Volume 30 (2020) no. 12 | Article

[55] Spielman, D.; Brook, B. W.; Briscoe, D. A.; Frankham, R. Does Inbreeding and Loss of Genetic Diversity Decrease Disease Resistance?, Conservation Genetics, Volume 5 (2004) no. 4, pp. 439-448 | Article

[56] Teifke, J. P.; Löhr, C. V.; Marschang, R. E.; Osterrieder, N.; Posthaus, H. Detection of Chelonid Herpesvirus DNA by Nonradioactive in Situ Hybridization in Tissues from Tortoises Suffering from Stomatitis—Rhinitis Complex in Europe and North America, Veterinary Pathology, Volume 37 (2000) no. 5, pp. 377-385 | Article

[57] Tompkins, D. M.; Carver, S.; Jones, M. E.; Krkošek, M.; Skerratt, L. F. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: a critical perspective, Trends in Parasitology, Volume 31 (2015) no. 4, pp. 149-159 | Article

[58] Weitzman, C. L.; Sandmeier, F. C.; Tracy, C. R. Prevalence and Diversity of the Upper Respiratory Pathogen Mycoplasma agassizii in Mojave Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Herpetologica, Volume 73 (2017) no. 2 | Article

[59] Whitfield, S.; Ridgley, F.; Valle, D.; Atteberry, N. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum in Wild and Waif Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, Herpetological Review, Volume 49 (2018)

Cited by Sources: