Section: Evolutionary Biology
Topic: Evolution, Genetics/Genomics, Plant biology

Impact of ploidy and pathogen life cycle on resistance durability

10.24072/pcjournal.10 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article no. e8.

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The breeding of resistant hosts based on the gene-for-gene interaction is crucial to address epidemics of plant pathogens in agroecosystems. Resistant host deployment strategies are developed and studied worldwide to decrease the probability of resistance breakdown and increase the resistance durability in various pathosystems. A major component of deployment strategies is the proportion of resistant hosts in the landscape. However, the impact of this proportion on resistance durability remains unclear for diploid pathogens with complex life cycles. In this study, we modelled pathogen population dynamics and genetic evolution at the virulence locus to assess the impact of the ploidy (haploid or diploid) and the pathogen’s life cycle (with or without host alternation) on resistance durability. Ploidy has a strong impact on evolutionary trajectories, with much greater stochasticity and delayed times of resistance breakdown for diploids. This result emphasises the importance of genetic drift in this system: as the virulent allele is recessive, positive selection on resistant hosts only applies to homozygous (virulent) individuals, which may lead to population collapse at low frequencies of the virulent allele. We also observed differences in the effect of host deployment depending on the pathogen’s life cycle. With host alternation, the probability that the pathogen population collapses strongly increases with the proportion of resistant hosts in the landscape. Therefore, resistance breakdown events occurring at high proportions of resistant hosts frequently amount to evolutionary rescue. Last, life cycles correspond to two selection regimes: without host alternation (soft selection) the resistance breakdown is mainly driven by the migration rate. Conversely, host alternation (hard selection) resembles an all-or-nothing game, with stochastic trajectories caused by the recurrent allele redistributions on the alternate host.
Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.10
Type: Research article

Saubin, Méline 1; De Mita, Stéphane 2; Zhu, Xujia 3; Sudret, Bruno 3; Halkett, Fabien 1

1 Université de Lorraine, INRAE, IAM, F-54000 Nancy, France
2 INRAE, Cirad, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Université de Montpellier, PHIM, F-34000 Montpellier, France
3 Chair of Risk, Safety and Uncertainty Quantification, ETH Zurich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 5, CH-8093, Switzerland
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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Saubin, Méline; De Mita, Stéphane; Zhu, Xujia; Sudret, Bruno; Halkett, Fabien. Impact of ploidy and pathogen life cycle on resistance durability. Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article  no. e8. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.10.

PCI peer reviews and recommendation, and links to data, scripts, code and supplementary information: 10.24072/pci.evolbiol.100131

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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