Section: Archaeology
Topic: Archaeology

The management of symbolic raw materials in the Late Upper Paleolithic of South-Western France: a shell ornaments perspective

10.24072/pcjournal.185 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 2 (2022), article no. e65.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI
article image

Personal ornaments manufactured on marine and fossil shell are a significant element of Upper Palaeolithic symbolic material culture, and are often found at considerable distances from Pleistocene coastlines or relevant fossil deposits. Here, we report on a significant collection of shell objects (n=377) from the Upper Magdalenian site of Rochereil (Dordogne, France). Despite the location of the site at more than 200km from the Pleistocene coast, the majority of the shells recovered here are unmodified, suggesting that transport and accumulation of shell raw material was an important component in the production of symbolic technologies some 16 15,000 years ago. A detailed comparative and microscopic reanalysis of this assemblage explores which species were selected, examines technological and taphonomic modification of the material, and compares this collection with the use of similar shell ornaments in the wider Magdalenian world.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.185
Type: Research article

Rigaud, Solange 1; O’Hara, John 2; Charles, Laurent 3; Man-Estier, Elena 4; Paillet, Patrick 5

1 CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, Ministère de la Culture, PACEA, UMR 5199, F-33600 Pessac, France
2 Center for the Study of Human Origins, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
3 Muséum de Bordeaux, 5 place Bardineau, 33000 Bordeaux, France
4 Direction régionale des Affaires culturelles de Bretagne – Service régional de l’Archéologie, Campus de Beaulieu, avenue du Professeur Foulon, 35000 Rennes et UMR 6566 CReAAH, Université de Rennes 1, France
5 Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 – HNHP, Département “Homme-Environnement”, Musée de l’Homme, 17 place du Trocadéro, 75116 Paris, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
     author = {Rigaud, Solange and O{\textquoteright}Hara, John and Charles, Laurent and Man-Estier, Elena and Paillet, Patrick},
     title = {The management of symbolic raw materials in the {Late} {Upper} {Paleolithic} of {South-Western} {France:} a shell ornaments perspective},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e65},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {2},
     year = {2022},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.185},
     url = {}
AU  - Rigaud, Solange
AU  - O’Hara, John
AU  - Charles, Laurent
AU  - Man-Estier, Elena
AU  - Paillet, Patrick
TI  - The management of symbolic raw materials in the Late Upper Paleolithic of South-Western France: a shell ornaments perspective
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2022
VL  - 2
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  -
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.185
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_185
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%A Rigaud, Solange
%A O’Hara, John
%A Charles, Laurent
%A Man-Estier, Elena
%A Paillet, Patrick
%T The management of symbolic raw materials in the Late Upper Paleolithic of South-Western France: a shell ornaments perspective
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2022
%V 2
%I Peer Community In
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.185
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_185
Rigaud, Solange; O’Hara, John; Charles, Laurent; Man-Estier, Elena; Paillet, Patrick. The management of symbolic raw materials in the Late Upper Paleolithic of South-Western France: a shell ornaments perspective. Peer Community Journal, Volume 2 (2022), article  no. e65. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.185.

PCI peer reviews and recommendation, and links to data, scripts, code and supplementary information: 10.24072/pci.archaeo.100018

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

[1] Alix, C. La Parure En Dents Percées Ou Encochées, La Grotte de La Vache (Ariège) I - Les Occupations Du Magdalénien, Réunion des Musées Nationaux & Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, 2003, pp. 368-390

[2] Álvarez Fernández, E. Los Objetos de Adorno-Colgantes Del Paleolitico Superior y Del Mesolitico En La Cornisa Cantabrica y En El Valle Del Ebro: Una Vision Europea, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (2006)

[3] Álvarez-Fernández, E. L'axe Rhin-Rhône Au Paléolithique Supérieur Récent : L'exemple Des Mollusques Utilisés Comme Objets de Parure, L'Anthropologie, Volume 105 (2001), pp. 547-564 | DOI

[4] Álvarez-Fernández, E. Humans and Marine Resource Interaction Reappraised: Archaeofauna Remains during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Cantabrian Spain, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, Volume 30 (2011), pp. 327-343 | DOI

[5] Amante, C.; Eakins, B. W. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Geophysical Data Center, Marine Geology and Geophysics Division, 2009

[6] Andrefsky, W. The Analysis of Stone Tool Procurement, Production, and Maintenance, Journal of Archaeological Research, Volume 17 (2009), pp. 65-103 | DOI

[7] Avaca, M. S.; Narvarte, M.; Martín, P.; van der Molen, S. Shell Shape Variation in the Nassariid Buccinanops Globulosus in Northern Patagonia, Helgoland Marine Research, Volume 67 (2013) no. 3, pp. 567-577 | DOI

[8] Avezuela Aristu, B.; Martín Lerma, I.; Sanchez, J. A.; Muñoz Ibáñez, F. Los Adornos Colgantes En El Paleolítico Superior: Experimentación Sobre Las Perforaciones En Littorina Obtusata, La Investigación Experimental Aplicada a La Arqueología, Granada, 2011, pp. 263-269

[9] Bar-Yosef Mayer, D. E. Nassarius Shells: Preferred Beads of the Palaeolithic, Malacological Studies from the Past and Present\: A Special Volume in Honor of Henk K. Mienis, Volume 390 (2015), pp. 79-84 | DOI

[10] Benghiat, S.; Komso, D.; Miracle, P. T. An Experimental Analysis of Perforated Shells from Sebrn (Istria), Croatia, Mesolithic Horizons. Papers Presented at the Seventh International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belfast 2005, Oxbow Books, Belfast, 2009, pp. 730-735

[11] Binford, L. R. Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology (Studies in Archeology), New York: Academic Press, 1978

[12] Binford, L. R. Willow Smoke and Dogs'Tails : Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation, American Antiquity, Volume 45 (1980) no. 1, pp. 4-20 | DOI

[13] Borić, D.; Cristiani, E. Personal Ornaments in Early Prehistory Taking Beads Seriously : Prehistoric Forager Ornamental Traditions in Southeastern Europe, PaleoAnthropology (2019), pp. 208-239

[14] Cabral, J. P.; Martins, J. M. Archaeological Glycymeris Glycymeris Shells Perforated at the Umbo: Natural or Man-Made Holes?, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 10 (2016) no. Supplement C, pp. 474-482 | DOI

[15] Cahuzac, B.; Chaix, B. Structural and Faunal Evolution of Chattian- Miocene Reefs and Corals in Western France and Northeastern Atlantic Ocean., Models for Carbonate Stratigraphy from Miocene Reefs Complexes of the Mediterranean Regions., Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, 1996, pp. 105-127

[16] Conkey, M. W.; Beltrán, A.; Clark, G. A.; Echegaray, J. G.; Guenther, M. G.; Hahn, J.; Hayden, B.; Paddayya, K.; Straus, L. G.; Valoch, K. The Identification of Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Aggregation Sites: The Case of Altamira [and Comments and Reply], Current Anthropology, Volume 21 (1980) no. 5, pp. 609-630 | DOI

[17] Cossmann, M.; Peyrot, A. Conchologie Néogénique de l'Aquitaine, Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, Volume 69 (1915) no. 3, pp. 157-284

[18] Cowan, F. L. Making Sense of Flake Scatters: Lithic Technological Strategies and Mobility, American Antiquity, Volume 64 (1999) no. 4, pp. 593-607 | DOI

[19] Delagnes, A.; Rendu, W. Shifts in Neandertal Mobility, Technology and Subsistence Strategies in Western France, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 38 (2011) no. 8, pp. 1771-1783 | DOI

[20] Delluc, B.; Delluc, G. L'étonnante Grotte de Rochereil (Grand-Brassac), Bulletin de la Société historique et archéologique du Périgord, Volume CXXXII (2005), pp. 121-146

[21] d'Errico, F.; Vanhaeren, M.; Van Niekerk, K.; Henshilwood, C. S.; Erasmus, R. M. Assessing the Accidental Versus Deliberate Colour Modification of Shell Beads: A Case Study on Perforated Nassarius Kraussianus from Blombos Cave Middle Stone Age Levels, Archaeometry, Volume 57 (2015) no. 1, pp. 51-76 | DOI

[22] d'Errico, F.; Jardon-Giner, P.; Soler-Mayor, B. Critères à Base Expérimentale Pour l'étude Des Perforations Naturelles et Intentionnelles Sur Coquillages, Traces et Fonction : Les Gestes Retrouvés, Volume ERAUL, Liège, 1993, pp. 244-253

[23] d'Errico, F.; Henshilwood, C.; Vanhaeren, M.; Van Niekerk, K. Nassarius Kraussianus Shell Beads from Blombos Cave: Evidence for Symbolic Behaviour in the Middle Stone Age, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 48 (2005), pp. 3-24 | DOI

[24] Dietl, G. P.; Kelley, P. H. Can Naticid Gastropod Predators Be Identified by the Holes They Drill?, Ichnos, Volume 13 (2006) no. 3, pp. 103-108 | DOI

[25] Donovan, D. The Pleistocene Deposits at Gough's Cave, Cheddar, Including an Account of Recent Excavations, Proceedings of the University of Bristol Spelaeological Society, Volume 7 (1955) no. 2, pp. 76-104

[26] Duchadeau-Kervazo, C. Les Sites Paléolithiques Du Bassin de La Dronne : Observation Sur Les Modes et Déplacements, Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française (1986), pp. 56-64

[27] Dupont, C. Archaeological Evidence for Collecting Empty Shells Along the French Atlantic Coast: An Important Activity for Coastal Populations, Journal of Ethnobiology, Volume 39 (2019) no. 2, pp. 223-239 | DOI

[28] Dupont, C. La Malacofaune de Sites Mésolithiques et Néolithiques de La Façade Atlantique de La France : Contribution à l'économie et à l'identité Culturelle Des Groupes Concernés, British Archaeological Reports, Archeopress, International Series 1571, Oxford, 2006

[29] Eriksen, B. V. Fossil Mollusks and Exotic Raw Materials in Late Glacial and Early Find Contexts: A Complement to Lithic Studies, Lithic Raw Material Economy in Late Glacial and Early Posglacial Western Europe, Bar International Series, Oxford, 2002, pp. 27-52

[30] Fisher, J. A. D.; Rhile, E. C.; Liu, H.; Petraitis, P. S. An Intertidal Snail Shows a Dramatic Size Increase over the Past Century, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 106 (2009) no. 13, pp. 5209-5212 | DOI

[31] Fullola, J. m.; Mangado, X.; Estrada, A. Circulation Des Matières Premières Lithiques et Des Coquillages Dans Le Paléolithique Supérieur Du Nord-Est Ibérique, La Notion de Mobilité Dans Les Sociétés Préhistoriques, CTHS, Paris, 2007, pp. 57-66

[32] Galparsoro, I.; Borja, Á.; Legorburu, I.; Hernández, C.; Chust, G.; Liria, P.; Uriarte, A. Morphological Characteristics of the Basque Continental Shelf (Bay of Biscay, Northern Spain) ; Their Implications for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Geomorphology, Volume 118 (2010), pp. 314-329 | DOI

[33] Goldschmidt, T. Nomlaki Ethnography, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 42 (1951), pp. 303-443

[34] Gorzelak, P.; Salamon, M. A.; Trzęsiok, D.; Niedźwiedzki, R. Drill Holes and Predation Traces versus Abrasion-Induced Artifacts Revealed by Tumbling Experiments, PLoS ONE, Volume 8 (2013) no. 3, p. e58528 | DOI

[35] Gourc, L.; Langlais, M.; Sitzia, L.; Caux, S.; Belbeoc'h, G.; Lenoir, M. La Honteyre (Le Tuzan, Gironde) Une Occupation de Chasseurs-Collecteurs Magdaléniens En Contexte de Désert Sableux, Bulletin de la Socité Préhistorique Française, Volume 113 (2016) no. 4, pp. 713-735

[36] Granger, A. Disparition de Quelques Mollusques Des Côtes Méditerranéennes de France, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Volume 34 (1880), pp. 353-357

[37] Gutiérrez-Zugasti, I. Coastal Resource Intensification across the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Northern Spain: Evidence from Shell Size and Age Distributions of Marine Gastropods, Quaternary International, Volume 244 (2011), pp. 54-66 | DOI

[38] Harasewych, J.; Moretzsohn, F. The Book of Shells: A Life-Size Guide to Identifying and Classifying Six Hundred Seashells, University of Chicago Press, 2010

[39] Hart, J. P.; Birch, J.; Gates St-Pierre, C. Effects of Population Dispersal on Regional Signaling Networks: An Example from Northern Iroquoia, Science Advances, Volume 3 (2017) no. 8 | DOI

[40] Hayden, B. Subsistence and Ecological Adaptations of Modern Hunter/Gatherers, Omnivorous Primates, New York, 1981, pp. 344-421

[41] Hughes, R. Sources of Inspiration for Studies of Prehistoric Resource Acquisition and Materials Conveyance in California and the Great Basin, Perspectives on Prehistoric Trade and Exchange in California and the Great Basin, 2011, pp. 1-21

[42] Jones, G. T.; Beck, C.; Jones, E.; Hughes, R. Lithic Source Use and Paleoarchaic Foraging Territories Inthe Great Basin, American Antiquity, Volume 68 (2003), pp. 5-38 | DOI

[43] Joordens, J. C. A.; d'Errico, F.; Wesselingh, F. P.; Munro, S.; de Vos, J.; Wallinga, J.; Ankjærgaard, C.; Reimann, T.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Kuiper, K. F.; Mücher, H. J.; Coqueugniot, H.; Prié, V.; Joosten, I.; van Os, B.; Schulp, A. S.; Panuel, M.; van der Haas, V.; Lustenhouwer, W.; Reijmer, J. J. G.; Roebroeks, W. Homo Erectus at Trinil on Java Used Shells for Tool Production and Engraving, Nature, Volume 518 (2014), p. 228 | DOI

[44] Jude, P.; Cruveiller, J. La Grotte et l'homme de Rochereil, Bulletin de la Société historique et archéologique du Périgord, Volume LXV (1938), pp. 190-197

[45] Jude, P. La Grotte de Rochereil, Station Magdalénienne et Azilienne, Archives de l'IPH, 1960

[46] Kelly, R. The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways, Washington DC, 1995

[47] Kroeber, A. Elements of Culture in Native California, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 13 (1922), pp. 260-328

[48] Kubicka, A. M.; Rosin, Z. M.; Tryjanowski, P.; Nelson, E. A Systematic Review of Animal Predation Creating Pierced Shells: Implications for the Archaeological Record of the Old World., PeerJ, Volume 5 (2017), p. e2903 | DOI

[49] Ladier, E.; Welté, A.-C. Les Objets de Parure de La Vallée de l'Aveyron, Fontales, Abris de Bruniquel (Plantade, Lafaye, Gandil), Paléo (1993), pp. 281-317

[50] Ladier, E.; Welté, A.-C.; Lambert, G.-N. Les Objets de Parure de La Vallée de l'Aveyron. Le Courbet, Bruniquel-Montastruc et Autres Abris; Documents Inédits Ou Retrouvés, Paléo, Volume 6 (1994) no. 1, pp. 197-231

[51] Lambeck, K.; Esat, T. M.; Potter, E.-K. Links between Climate and Sea Levels for the Past Three Million Years., Nature, Volume 419 (2002), pp. 199-205 | DOI

[52] Lambeck, K.; Chappell, J. Sea Level Change Through the Last Glacial Cycle, Science, Volume 292 (2001) no. 5517, pp. 679-686 | DOI

[53] Lambeck, K.; Rouby, H.; Purcell, A.; Sun, Y.; Sambridge, M. Sea Level and Global Ice Volumes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 111 (2014) no. 43, pp. 15296-15303 | DOI

[54] Langlais, M.; Laroulandie, V.; Pétillon, J.-M.; Mallye, J.-B.; Costamagno, S. Evolution Des Sociétés Magdaléniennes Dans Le Sud-Ouest de La France Entre 18500 et 14000 calBP : Recomposition Des Environnements, Reconfiguration Des Équipements, 2014, pp. 417-430

[55] Langlais, M.; Laroulandie, V. La Grotte-Abri de Peyrazet (Creysse, Lot, France), Une Séquence Tardiglaciaire Pour Le Haut-Quercy ; Le Magdalénien Supérieur, Rapport de Fouilles Programmées, Synthèse de La Triennale (2012-2014), DRAC-SRA Midi-Pyrénées (2014), p. 250

[56] Langlais, M.; Jacquement, P.; Detrain, L.; Valdeyron, N. Le Laborien : Ultime Sursaut Technique Du Cycle Évolutif Paléolithique Du Sud-Ouest de La France ?, Transitions, Ruptures et Continuité En Préhistoire : [Volume 2 : Paléolithique et Mésolithique] (Congrès Préhistorique de France. Compte Rendu de La 27ème Session, Bordeaux 2010 [Session G]), Société préhistorique française, Paris, 2014, pp. 567-582

[57] Langlais, M.; Sécher, A.; Caux, S.; Delvigne, V.; Gourc, L.; Normand, C.; Sánchez de la Torre, M. Lithic Tool Kits: A Metronome of the Evolution of the Magdalenian in Southwest France (19,000–14,000 Cal BP), Quaternary International (2016) | DOI

[58] Lescinsky, H. L.; Edinger, E.; Risk, M. J. Mollusc Shell Encrustation and Bioerosion Rates in a Modern Epeiric Sea: Taphonomy Experiments in the Java Sea, Indonesia, PALAIOS, Volume 17 (2002) no. 2, pp. 171-191 | DOI

[59] Man-Estier, E.; Paillet, P. Rochereill et l'art Magdalénien de La Fin Du Tardiglaciaire Dans Le Nord Du Périgord (Dordogne, France), Expressions Esthétiques et Comportements Techniques Au Paléolithique, BAR International Series, Oxford, 2013, pp. 7-36

[60] Michel, J.; Doitteau, G.; Hebib, H.; Lozouet, P.; Villier, L. Biodiversity Structure of an Exceptionally Preserved Aquitanian Bivalve Assemblage (Meilhan, SW France), N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., Volume 265 (2012), pp. 113-130 | DOI

[61] MolluscaBase Eds. MolluscaBase, 2022 (

[62] Moshkovitz, S. The Mollusca in the Marine Pliocene and Pleistocene Sediments of the Southeastern Meditteranean Basin (Cyprus - Israel), Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel (1968)

[63] Newlander, K. Imagining the Cultural Landscapes of Paleoindians, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2017) | DOI

[64] O'Hara, J. The Social Geographies of Personal Ornamentation in Magdalenian Franco-Cantabria, New York University, New York (2017)

[65] O'Shea, J.; Lemke, A. K.; Reynolds, R. G. “Nobody Knows the Way of the Caribou”: Rangifer Hunting at 45° North Latitude, Quaternary International, Volume 297 (2013), pp. 36-44 | DOI

[66] Paillet, P.; Man-Estier, E. La Grotte de Rochereil à Grand-Brassac (Dordogne): De l'art de Faire Parler Les Déblais et Les Archives, Bulletin Préhistoire du Sud-Ouest, Volume 22 (2014) no. 1/2, pp. 121-132

[67] Paillet, P. Men and Cultures at the End of the Late Ice Age in the North of Perigord : Continuities and Ruptures. (in) Concept, Methodology, Context, Documentation and Conservation, International Conference on Rock Art, 06-13 December, 2012, Understanding Rock Art in Context, IGNCA Series – 10, Indira Gandhi National Centre For The Arts, New Delhi, Rock Art Studies, Volume 1 (2014), pp. 135-150

[68] Parize, O.; Mulder, T.; Cahuzac, B.; Fiet, N.; Londeix, L.; Rubino, J.-L. Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy of Aquitanian and Burdigalian Stratotypes in the Bordeaux Area (Southwestern France), Comptes Rendus Geoscience, Volume 340 (2008) no. 6, pp. 390-399 | DOI

[69] Peschaux, C. Los Adornos Solutrenses: Identificación de Un Nuevo Procedimiento de Perforación de Las Conchas En Lachaud (Terrasson, Dordoña, Francia), Espacio, tiempo y forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y arqueología,, Volume 5 (2012), pp. 333-350

[70] Poppe, T.; Goto, Y. European Seashells : Polyplacophora, Caudofoveata, Solenogastra, Gasteropoda, Verlag Christa Hemmen, Germany, 1991, p. 352

[71] Poppe, G.; Goto, Y. European Seashells Volume II (Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda), ConchBooks, Hackenheim, 2000

[72] Ricard, D. Instrument de Silex Magdalénien de Rocheroeil (Dordogne), Bulletin de la Socité préhistorique Française, Volume 3 (1906), pp. 256-257

[73] Rigaud, S. Pratiques ornementales des premieres communautés agro-pastorales de Baviere (Allemagne) : Intégration ? Acculturation ? Convergence ? Nouveaux apports de la nécropole de Essenbach-Ammerbreite, Anthropologie Brno, Volume 52 (2014) no. 2, pp. 207-227

[74] Rigaud, S.; d'Errico, F.; Vanhaeren, M.; Peñalber, X. A Short-Term, Task-Specific Site: Epipalaeolithic Settlement Patterns Inferred from Marine Shells Found at Praileaitz I (Basque Country, Spain), Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 41 (2014) no. 0, pp. 666-678 | DOI

[75] Rigaud, S.; Gutiérrez-Zugasti, I. Symbolism among the Last Hunter–Fisher–Gatherers in Northern Iberia: Personal Ornaments from El Mazo and El Toral III Mesolithic Shell Midden Sites, Quaternary International, Volume 407 (2016), pp. 131-144 | DOI

[76] Rivero, O. Vers Une Caractérisation Du Gisement Magdalénien d'Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) à Travers Sa Production Artistique, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, Volume 111 (2014) no. 2, pp. 255-274

[77] Rogalla, N.; Amler, D.; München, M. Statistic Approach on Taphonomic Phenomena in Shells of Glycymeris Glycymeris (Bivalvia: Glycymerididae) and Its Significance in the Fossil Record, Paläontologische Zeitschrift, Volume 81 (2007) no. 3, pp. 334-355 | DOI

[78] Rojas, A.; Dietl, G. P. Edge-Drilling Behavior in the Predatory Gastropod Notocochlis Unifasciata (Lamarck, 1822) (Caenogastropoda, Naticidae) from the Pacific Coast of Panama: Taxonomic and Biogeographical Implications, Vita Malacologica (2015) no. 13, pp. 63-72

[79] Sharp, L. Steel Axes for Stone-Age Australians, Human Organisation, Volume II (1952), pp. 17-22

[80] Soler Mayor, B. Estudio de Los Elementos Ornamentales de La Cova de Papalló, Saguntum Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología, Volume 23 (1990), pp. 39-59 | DOI

[81] Soler Mayor, B.; Benito, J. L. P.; Sanchis, A. Recursos Marinos Ornamentales de La Cova Beneito (Muro, El Comtat, Alacant), Recursos Marins En El Passat. IV Jornades d'arqueozoologia, Valencia, 2019, pp. 47-61

[82] Spencer, B.; Gillen, F. The Arunta, 2, London, 1927

[83] Speth, J. D.; Newlander, K.; White, A. A.; Lemke, A. K.; Anderson, L. E. Early Paleoindian Big-Game Hunting in North America: Provisioning or Politics?, Peopling the last new worlds: the first colonisation of Sahul and the Americas, Volume 285 (2013), pp. 111-139 | DOI

[84] Taborin, Y. La Parure En Coquillage Au Paléolithique, Supplèment à Gallia Préhistoire, 32, CNRS Éditions, Paris, 1993

[85] Taborin, Y. La Parure En Coquillage Au Paléolithique, Broché, 1998

[86] Tátá, F.; Cascalheira, J.; Marreiros, J.; Pereira, T.; Bicho, N. Shell Bead Production in the Upper Paleolithic of Vale Boi (SW Portugal): An Experimental Perspective, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42 (2014), pp. 29-41 | DOI

[87] Texier, J. Sédimentogenèse Des Sites Préhistoriques Du Périgord., Pole international de Prehistoire, 2006

[88] Thomson, D. Economic Structure and the Ceremonial Exchange Cycle in Arnhem Land, Melbourne, 1949

[89] Vanhaeren, M. Les Fonctions de La Parure Au Paléolithique Supérieur : De l'individu à l'unité Culturelle, Université de Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux, Talence (2002)

[90] Vanhaeren, M.; d'Errico, F. La Parure de l'enfant de La Madeleine (Fouilles Peyrony). Un Nouveau Regard Sur l'enfance Au Paléolithique Supérieure., Paleo, Volume 13 (2001), pp. 201-237

[91] Vanhaeren, M.; d'Errico, F.; van Niekerk, K. L.; Henshilwood, C. S.; Erasmus, R. M. Thinking Strings: Additional Evidence for Personal Ornament Use in the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 64 (2013) no. 6, pp. 500-517 | DOI

[92] Whallon, R. Social Networks and Information: Non-“Utilitarian” Mobility among Hunter-Gatherers, Mesolithic mobility, exchange, and interaction, Volume 25 (2006) no. 2, pp. 259-270 | DOI

[93] White, R. Substantial Acts: From Materials to Meaning in Upper Paleolithic Representation, Beyond Art, California Academy of Sciences, 1997, pp. 93-121

[94] Wiessner, P. A Regional System of Reciprocity for Reducing Risk among the! Kung-San, Thesis, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1977)

[95] Wiessner, P. Risk, Reciprocity and Social Influences on! Kung San Economics, Politics and history in band societies, Volume 61 (1982), p. 84

Cited by Sources: