Automatic approach-avoidance tendency toward physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli as a function of age, explicit affective attitude, and intention to be active

10.24072/pcjournal.246 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e21.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI

Using computerized reaction-time tasks assessing automatic attitudes, studies have shown that healthy young adults have faster reaction times when approaching physical activity stimuli than when avoiding them. The opposite has been observed for sedentary stimuli. However, it is unclear whether these results hold across the lifespan and when error rates and a possible generic approach-avoidance tendency are accounted for. Here, reaction times and errors in online approach-avoidance tasks of 130 participants aged 21 to 77 years were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Automatic approach-avoidance tendencies were tested using physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli. Explicit attitudes toward physical activity and intention to be physically active were self-reported. Results accounting for age, sex, gender, level of physical activity, body mass index, and chronic health condition confirmed a main tendency to approach physical activity stimuli (i.e., faster reaction to approach vs. avoid; p = .001) and to avoid sedentary stimuli (i.e., faster reaction to avoid vs. approach; p < .001). Results based on neutral stimuli revealed a generic approach tendency in early adulthood (i.e., faster approach before age 53 and fewer errors before age 36) and a generic avoidance tendency in older adults (i.e., more errors after age 60). When accounting for these generic tendencies, results showed a greater tendency (i.e., fewer errors) to avoid than approach sedentary stimuli after aged 50, but not before (p = .026). Exploratory analyses showed that irrespective of age, participants were faster at approaching physical activity (p = .028) and avoiding sedentary stimuli (p = .041) when they considered physical activity as pleasant and enjoyable (explicit attitude). However, results showed no evidence of an association between approach-avoidance tendencies and the intention to be physically active. Taken together, these results suggest that both age and explicit attitudes can affect the general tendency to approach physical activity stimuli and to avoid sedentary stimuli.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.246
Keywords: Aging, Attitude, Exercise, Geriatrics, Health, Humans, Intention, Motor Control, Personality, Reaction Time, Sedentary Behavior
Farajzadeh, Ata 1, 2; Goubran, Miriam 1, 2; Beehler, Alexa 1; Cherkaoui, Noura 1; Morrison, Paula 1; de Chanaleilles, Margaux 3; Maltagliati, Silvio 3; Cheval, Boris 4, 5; Miller, Matthew W. 6, 7; Sheehy, Lisa 2; Bilodeau, Martin 1, 2; Orsholits, Dan 8, 9; Boisgontier, Matthieu P. 1, 2

1 School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada
2 Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada
3 Laboratory Sport and Social Environment (SENS), Université Grenoble Alpes, France
4 Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland
5 Laboratory for the Study of Emotion Elicitation and Expression (E3Lab), Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Switzerland
6 School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, USA
7 Center for Neuroscience, Auburn University, USA
8 Centre for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability, University of Geneva, Switzerland
9 Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES—Overcoming Vulnerability: Life Course Perspectives, Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
     author = {Farajzadeh, Ata and Goubran, Miriam and Beehler, Alexa and Cherkaoui, Noura and Morrison, Paula and de Chanaleilles, Margaux and Maltagliati, Silvio and Cheval, Boris and Miller, Matthew W. and Sheehy, Lisa and Bilodeau, Martin and Orsholits, Dan and Boisgontier, Matthieu P.},
     title = {Automatic approach-avoidance tendency toward physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli as a function of age, explicit affective attitude, and intention to be active},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e21},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {3},
     year = {2023},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.246},
     url = {}
AU  - Farajzadeh, Ata
AU  - Goubran, Miriam
AU  - Beehler, Alexa
AU  - Cherkaoui, Noura
AU  - Morrison, Paula
AU  - de Chanaleilles, Margaux
AU  - Maltagliati, Silvio
AU  - Cheval, Boris
AU  - Miller, Matthew W.
AU  - Sheehy, Lisa
AU  - Bilodeau, Martin
AU  - Orsholits, Dan
AU  - Boisgontier, Matthieu P.
TI  - Automatic approach-avoidance tendency toward physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli as a function of age, explicit affective attitude, and intention to be active
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2023
VL  - 3
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  -
UR  -
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.246
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_246
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%A Farajzadeh, Ata
%A Goubran, Miriam
%A Beehler, Alexa
%A Cherkaoui, Noura
%A Morrison, Paula
%A de Chanaleilles, Margaux
%A Maltagliati, Silvio
%A Cheval, Boris
%A Miller, Matthew W.
%A Sheehy, Lisa
%A Bilodeau, Martin
%A Orsholits, Dan
%A Boisgontier, Matthieu P.
%T Automatic approach-avoidance tendency toward physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli as a function of age, explicit affective attitude, and intention to be active
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2023
%V 3
%I Peer Community In
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.246
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_246
Farajzadeh, Ata; Goubran, Miriam; Beehler, Alexa; Cherkaoui, Noura; Morrison, Paula; de Chanaleilles, Margaux; Maltagliati, Silvio; Cheval, Boris; Miller, Matthew W.; Sheehy, Lisa; Bilodeau, Martin; Orsholits, Dan; Boisgontier, Matthieu P. Automatic approach-avoidance tendency toward physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli as a function of age, explicit affective attitude, and intention to be active. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e21. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.246.

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.neuro.100138

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

[1] Alexopoulos, T.; Ric, F. The evaluation-behavior link: Direct and beyond valence, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 43 (2007) no. 6, pp. 1010-1016 | DOI

[2] Allen, L.; O’Connell, A.; Kiermer, V. How can we ensure visibility and diversity in research contributions? How the Contributor Role Taxonomy (CRediT) is helping the shift from authorship to contributorship, Learned Publishing, Volume 32 (2019) no. 1, pp. 71-74 | DOI

[3] Aulbach, M. B.; Knittle, K.; Haukkala, A. Implicit process interventions in eating behaviour: a meta-analysis examining mediators and moderators, Health Psychology Review, Volume 13 (2019) no. 2, pp. 179-208 | DOI

[4] Baayen, R.; Davidson, D.; Bates, D. Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items, Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 59 (2008) no. 4, pp. 390-412 | DOI

[5] Banting, L. K.; Dimmock, J. A.; Lay, B. S. The role of implicit and explicit components of exerciser self-schema in the prediction of exercise behaviour, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 10 (2009) no. 1, pp. 80-86 | DOI

[6] Barton, K. MuMIn: Multi-model inference (Version 1.46.0) [R package], 2022 (

[7] Bates., D.; Maechler, M.; Bolker, B.; Walker, S.; Christensen, R. H. B.; Singmann, H.; Dai, B.; Scheipl, F.; Grothendieck, G.; Green, P.; Fox, J.; Bauer, A.; Krivitsky, N. lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using ‘eigen’ and S4 (Version 1.1-27.1) [R package], 2021 (

[8] Bauer, U. E.; Briss, P. A.; Goodman, R. A.; Bowman, B. A. Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA, The Lancet, Volume 384 (2014) no. 9937, pp. 45-52 | DOI

[9] Becker, D.; Jostmann, N. B.; Holland, R. W. Does approach bias modification really work in the eating domain? A commentary on Kakoschke et al. (2017), Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77 (2018), pp. 293-294 | DOI

[10] Berry, T. R.; Rodgers, W. M.; Markland, D.; Hall, C. R. Moderators of implicit–explicit exercise cognition concordance, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 38 (2016) no. 6, pp. 579-589 | DOI

[11] Boisgontier MP Aging of the automatic tendency to engage in or avoid physical activity and sedentary behavior [Preregistration], 2021 | DOI

[12] Boisgontier, M. Research integrity requires to be aware of good and questionable research practices, European Rehabilitation Journal, Volume 2 (2022) no. 1, pp. 1-3 | DOI

[13] Boisgontier, M. P.; Iversen, M. D. Physical Inactivity: A behavioral disorder in the physical therapist’s scope of practice, Physical Therapy, Volume 100 (2020) no. 5, pp. 743-746 | DOI

[14] Boisgontier, M. P.; Cheval, B. The anova to mixed model transition, Neuroscience &amp; Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 68 (2016), pp. 1004-1005 | DOI

[15] Bradley, M. M.; Lang, P. J. Measuring emotion: The self-assessment manikin and the semantic differential, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Volume 25 (1994) no. 1, pp. 49-59 | DOI

[16] Brand, A.; Allen, L.; Altman, M.; Hlava, M.; Scott, J. Beyond authorship: attribution, contribution, collaboration, and credit, Learned Publishing, Volume 28 (2015) no. 2, pp. 151-155 | DOI

[17] Brockmeyer, T.; Friederich, H.; Küppers, C.; Chowdhury, S.; Harms, L.; Simmonds, J.; Gordon, G.; Potterton, R.; Schmidt, U. Approach bias modification training in bulimia nervosa and binge‐eating disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial, International Journal of Eating Disorders, Volume 52 (2019) no. 5, pp. 520-529 | DOI

[18] Béna, J.; Melnikoff, D. E.; Mierop, A.; Corneille, O. Revisiting dissociation hypotheses with a structural fit approach: The case of the prepared reflex framework, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 100 (2022) | DOI

[19] Börsch-Supan, A. Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (Wave 8) (Version 8.0.0) [Data set]., 2022 | DOI

[20] Caldwell, A. R.; Vigotsky, A. D.; Tenan, M. S.; Radel, R.; Mellor, D. T.; Kreutzer, A.; Lahart, I. M.; Mills, J. P.; Boisgontier, M. P. Moving sport and exercise science forward: A call for the adoption of more transparent research practices, Sports Medicine, Volume 50 (2020) no. 3, pp. 449-459 | DOI

[21] Carver, C. S.; White, T. L. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 67 (1994) no. 2, pp. 319-333 | DOI

[22] Chastin, S. F. M.; Buck, C.; Freiberger, E.; Murphy, M.; Brug, J.; Cardon, G.; O’Donoghue, G.; Pigeot, I.; Oppert, J.-M. Systematic literature review of determinants of sedentary behaviour in older adults: a DEDIPAC study, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Volume 12 (2015) no. 1 | DOI

[23] Chen, M.; Bargh, J. A. Consequences of automatic evaluation: Immediate behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid the stimulus, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 25 (1999) no. 2, pp. 215-224 | DOI

[24] Cheval, B.; Boisgontier, M. P. The theory of effort minimization in physical activity, Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, Volume 49 (2021) no. 3, pp. 168-178 | DOI

[25] Cheval, B.; Cabral, D. A. R.; Daou, M.; Bacelar, M. F. B.; Parma, J. O.; Forestier, C.; Orsholits, D.; Maltagliati, S.; Sander, D.; Boisgontier, M. P.; Miller, M. W. Inhibitory control elicited by physical activity and inactivity stimuli: An electroencephalography study., Motivation Science, Volume 7 (2021a) no. 4, pp. 386-399 | DOI

[26] Cheval, B.; Daou, M.; Cabral, D. A.; Bacelar, M. F.; Parma, J. O.; Forestier, C.; Orsholits, D.; Sander, D.; Boisgontier, M. P.; Miller, M. W. Higher inhibitory control is required to escape the innate attraction to effort minimization, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 51 (2020a) | DOI

[27] Cheval, B.; Finckh, A.; Maltagliati, S.; Fessler, L.; Cullati, S.; Sander, D.; Friese, M.; Wiers, R. W.; Boisgontier, M. P.; Courvoisier, D. S.; Luthy, C. Cognitive-bias modification intervention to improve physical activity in patients following a rehabilitation programme: protocol for the randomised controlled IMPACT trial, BMJ Open, Volume 11 (2021b) no. 9 | DOI

[28] Cheval, B.; Orsholits, D.; Sieber, S.; Courvoisier, D.; Cullati, S.; Boisgontier, M. P. Relationship between decline in cognitive resources and physical activity., Health Psychology, Volume 39 (2020b) no. 6, pp. 519-528 | DOI

[29] Cheval, B.; Radel, R.; Neva, J. L.; Boyd, L. A.; Swinnen, S. P.; Sander, D.; Boisgontier, M. P. Behavioral and neural evidence of the rewarding value of exercise behaviors: A systematic review, Sports Medicine, Volume 48 (2018a) no. 6, pp. 1389-1404 | DOI

[30] Cheval, B.; Sarrazin, P.; Isoard-Gautheur, S.; Radel, R.; Friese, M. Reflective and impulsive processes explain (in)effectiveness of messages promoting physical activity: A randomized controlled trial., Health Psychology, Volume 34 (2015) no. 1, pp. 10-19 | DOI

[31] Cheval, B.; Sarrazin, P.; Isoard-Gautheur, S.; Radel, R.; Friese, M. How impulsivity shapes the interplay of impulsive and reflective processes involved in objective physical activity, Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 96 (2016a), pp. 132-137 | DOI

[32] Cheval, B.; Sarrazin, P.; Pelletier, L. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis, PLoS ONE, Volume 9 (2014) no. 12 | DOI

[33] Cheval, B.; Sarrazin, P.; Pelletier, L.; Friese, M. Effect of retraining approach-avoidance tendencies on an exercise task: A randomized controlled trial, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Volume 13 (2016b) no. 12, pp. 1396-1403 | DOI

[34] Cheval, B.; Sieber, S.; Guessous, I.; Orshlits, D.; Courvoisier, D. S.; Kliegel, M.; Stinghini, S.; Swinnen, S. P.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Cullati, S.; Boisgontier, M. P. Effect of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances on physical inactivity, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Volume 50 (2018b) no. 3, pp. 476-485 | DOI

[35] Cheval, B.; Tipura, E.; Burra, N.; Frossard, J.; Chanal, J.; Orsholits, D.; Radel, R.; Boisgontier, M. P. Avoiding sedentary behaviors requires more cortical resources than avoiding physical activity: An EEG study, Neuropsychologia, Volume 119 (2018c), pp. 68-80 | DOI

[36] Chevance, G.; Bernard, P.; Chamberland, P. E.; Rebar, A. The association between implicit attitudes toward physical activity and physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and correlational meta-analysis, Health Psychology Review, Volume 13 (2019) no. 3, pp. 248-276 | DOI

[37] Chittka, L.; Skorupski, P.; Raine, N. E. Speed–accuracy tradeoffs in animal decision making, Trends in Ecology &amp; Evolution, Volume 24 (2009) no. 7, pp. 400-407 | DOI

[38] Cohen, J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1988 | DOI

[39] Conroy, D. E.; Hyde, A. L.; Doerksen, S. E.; Ribeiro, N. F. Implicit attitudes and explicit motivation prospectively predict physical activity, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Volume 39 (2010) no. 2, pp. 112-118 | DOI

[40] Corneille, O.; Hütter, M. Implicit? What do you mean? A comprehensive review of the delusive implicitness construct in attitude research, Personality and Social Psychology Review, Volume 24 (2020) no. 3, pp. 212-232 | DOI

[41] Craig, C. L.; Marshall, A. L.; Sjöström, M.; Bauman, A. E.; Booth, M. L.; Ainsworth, B. E.; Pratt, M.; Ekelund, U.; Yngve, A.; Sallis, J. F.; Oja, P. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Volume 35 (2003) no. 8, pp. 1381-1395 | DOI

[42] De Houwer, J.; Crombez, G.; Baeyens, F.; Hermans, D. On the generality of the affective Simon effect, Cognition and Emotion, Volume 15 (2001) no. 2, pp. 189-206 | DOI

[43] Ding, D.; Lawson, K. D.; Kolbe-Alexander, T. L.; Finkelstein, E. A.; Katzmarzyk, P. T.; van Mechelen, W.; Pratt, M. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases, The Lancet, Volume 388 (2016) no. 10051, pp. 1311-1324 | DOI

[44] Donders FC Die Schnelligkeit psychischer Processe [The speed of mental processes], Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und Wissenschaftliche Medicin, Volume 6 (1868), pp. 657-681

[45] Donders, F. On the speed of mental processes, Acta Psychologica, Volume 30 (1969), pp. 412-431 | DOI

[46] Duckworth, K. L.; Bargh, J. A.; Garcia, M.; Chaiken, S. The automatic evaluation of novel stimuli, Psychological Science, Volume 13 (2002) no. 6, pp. 513-519 | DOI

[47] Eberl, C.; Wiers, R. W.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E. S.; Lindenmeyer, J. Approach bias modification in alcohol dependence: Do clinical effects replicate and for whom does it work best?, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 4 (2013), pp. 38-51 | DOI

[48] Ebner, N. C.; Freund, A. M.; Baltes, P. B. Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: From striving for gains to maintenance and prevention of losses., Psychology and Aging, Volume 21 (2006) no. 4, pp. 664-678 | DOI

[49] Elliot, A. J. Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals, Educational Psychologist, Volume 34 (1999) no. 3, pp. 169-189 | DOI

[50] Elliot, A. J.; Thrash, T. M. Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 82 (2002) no. 5, pp. 804-818 | DOI

[51] Exner, S. Experimentelle Untersuchung der einfachsten psychischen Processe, Pflüger, Archiv für die Gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der Thiere, Volume 7 (1873) no. 1, pp. 601-660 | DOI

[52] Farajzadeh, A.; Goubran, M.; Beehler, A.; Cherkaoui, N.; Morrison, P.; de Chanaleilles, M.; Maltagliati, S.; Cheval, B.; Miller, M. W.; Sheehy, L.; Bilodeau, M.; Orsholits, D.; Boisgontier, M. P. Automatic approach-avoidance tendency toward physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli as a function of age, explicit affective attitude, and intention to be active, medRxiv, 2023 | DOI

[53] Faul, F.; Erdfelder, E.; Buchner, A.; Lang, A.-G. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses, Behavior Research Methods, Volume 41 (2009) no. 4, pp. 1149-1160 | DOI

[54] Fazio, R. H.; Sanbonmatsu, D. M.; Powell, M. C.; Kardes, F. R. On the automatic activation of attitudes., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 50 (1986) no. 2, pp. 229-238 | DOI

[55] Fishbach, A.; Shah, J. Y. Self-control in action: Implicit dispositions toward goals and away from temptations., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 90 (2006) no. 5, pp. 820-832 | DOI

[56] Fodor, L. A.; Georgescu, R.; Cuijpers, P.; Szamoskozi, Ş.; David, D.; Furukawa, T. A.; Cristea, I. A. Efficacy of cognitive bias modification interventions in anxiety and depressive disorders: a systematic review and network meta-analysis, The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 7 (2020) no. 6, pp. 506-514 | DOI

[57] García-Rosales, F.; López-Jury, L.; González-Palomares, E.; Wetekam, J.; Cabral-Calderín, Y.; Kiai, A.; Kössl, M.; Hechavarría, J. C. Echolocation-related reversal of information flow in a cortical vocalization network, Nature Communications, Volume 13 (2022) no. 1 | DOI

[58] Gladwin, T. E.; Rinck, M.; Eberl, C.; Becker, E. S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Wiers, R. W. Mediation of cognitive bias modification for alcohol addiction via stimulus-specific alcohol avoidance association, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Volume 39 (2015) no. 1, pp. 101-107 | DOI

[59] Greene, J. D.; Sommerville, R. B.; Nystrom, L. E.; Darley, J. M.; Cohen, J. D. An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment, Science, Volume 293 (2001) no. 5537, pp. 2105-2108 | DOI

[60] Greenwald, A. G.; Banaji, M. R. Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes., Psychological Review, Volume 102 (1995) no. 1, pp. 4-27 | DOI

[61] Greenwald, A. G.; McGhee, D. E.; Schwartz, J. L. K. Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 74 (1998) no. 6, pp. 1464-1480 | DOI

[62] Greenwald, A. G.; Poehlman, T. A.; Uhlmann, E. L.; Banaji, M. R. Understanding and using the implicit association test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 97 (2009) no. 1, pp. 17-41 | DOI

[63] Hallal, P. C.; Andersen, L. B.; Bull, F. C.; Guthold, R.; Haskell, W.; Ekelund, U. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects, The Lancet, Volume 380 (2012) no. 9838, pp. 247-257 | DOI

[64] Hannan, T. E.; Moffitt, R. L.; Neumann, D. L.; Kemps, E. Implicit approach–avoidance associations predict leisure-time exercise independently of explicit exercise motivation., Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, Volume 8 (2019) no. 2, pp. 210-222 | DOI

[65] Harms, C.; Lakens, D. Making 'null effects' informative: statistical techniques and inferential frameworks, Journal of Clinical and Translational Research, Volume 3 (2018), pp. 382-393 | DOI

[66] Heitz, R. P. The speed-accuracy tradeoff: history, physiology, methodology, and behavior, Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 8 (2014) | DOI

[67] Hick, W. E. On the rate of gain of information, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Volume 4 (1952) no. 1, pp. 11-26 | DOI

[68] Hofmann, W.; Gschwendner, T.; Nosek, B. A.; Schmitt, M. What moderates implicit—explicit consistency?, European Review of Social Psychology, Volume 16 (2005) no. 1, pp. 335-390 | DOI

[69] Hoyt, A. L.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hausenblas, H. A.; Giacobbi, P. R. Integrating five-factor model facet-level traits with the theory of planned behavior and exercise, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 10 (2009) no. 5, pp. 565-572 | DOI

[70] Hyde, A. L.; Doerksen, S. E.; Ribeiro, N. F.; Conroy, D. E. The independence of implicit and explicit attitudes toward physical activity: Introspective access and attitudinal concordance, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 11 (2010) no. 5, pp. 387-393 | DOI

[71] Judd, C. M.; Westfall, J.; Kenny, D. A. Treating stimuli as a random factor in social psychology: A new and comprehensive solution to a pervasive but largely ignored problem, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 103 (2012) no. 1, pp. 54-69 | DOI

[72] Kakoschke, N.; Kemps, E.; Tiggemann, M. Approach bias modification training and consumption: A review of the literature, Addictive Behaviors, Volume 64 (2017), pp. 21-28 | DOI

[73] Kemps, E.; Tiggemann, M.; Cibich, M.; Cabala, A. Cognitive bias modification for energy drink cues, PLOS ONE, Volume 14 (2019) no. 12 | DOI

[74] Koeneman, M. A.; Verheijden, M. W.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Hopman-Rock, M. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Volume 8 (2011) no. 1 | DOI

[75] Koo, T. K.; Li, M. Y. A Guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research, Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, Volume 15 (2016) no. 2, pp. 155-163 | DOI

[76] Krieglmeyer, R.; Deutsch, R. Comparing measures of approach–avoidance behaviour: The manikin task vs. two versions of the joystick task, Cognition and Emotion, Volume 24 (2010) no. 5, pp. 810-828 | DOI

[77] Kuznetsova, A.; Brockhoff, P. B.; Christensen, R. H. B.; Jensen, S. P. lmerTest: Tests in linear mixed effects models (Version 3.1-3) [R package], 2020 (

[78] LaSorda, K. R.; Gmelin, T.; Kuipers, A. L.; Boudreau, R. M.; Santanasto, A. J.; Christensen, K.; Renner, S. W.; Wojczynski, M. K.; Andersen, S. L.; Cosentino, S.; Glynn, N. W. Epidemiology of perceived physical fatigability in older adults: The long life family study, The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 75 (2019) no. 9 | DOI

[79] Lang, P. J. The emotion probe: Studies of motivation and attention, American Psychologist, Volume 50 (1995) no. 5, pp. 372-385 | DOI

[80] Locke, S. R.; Berry, T. R. Examining the relationship between exercise-related cognitive errors, exercise schema, and implicit associations, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 43 (2021) no. 4, pp. 345-352 | DOI

[81] Luke, S. G. Evaluating significance in linear mixed-effects models in R, Behavior Research Methods, Volume 49 (2017) no. 4, pp. 1494-1502 | DOI

[82] Maher, J. P.; Dunton, G. F. Within-day time-varying associations between motivation and movement-related behaviors in older adults, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 47 (2020) | DOI

[83] Maltagliati, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Isoard-Gautheur, S.; Rhodes, R. E.; Boisgontier, M. P.; Cheval, B. I sit but I don’t know why: Investigating the multiple precursors of leisure-time sedentary behaviors, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Volume 93 (2021) no. 3, pp. 548-563 | DOI

[84] Markman, A. B.; Brendl, C. M. Constraining theories of embodied cognition, Psychological Science, Volume 16 (2005) no. 1, pp. 6-10 | DOI

[85] Marteau, T. M.; Hollands, G. J.; Fletcher, P. C. Changing human behavior to prevent disease: The importance of targeting automatic processes, Science, Volume 337 (2012) no. 6101, pp. 1492-1495 | DOI

[86] Martin Ginis, K. A.; van der Ploeg, H. P.; Foster, C.; Lai, B.; McBride, C. B.; Ng, K.; Pratt, M.; Shirazipour, C. H.; Smith, B.; Vásquez, P. M.; Heath, G. W. Participation of people living with disabilities in physical activity: a global perspective, The Lancet, Volume 398 (2021) no. 10298, pp. 443-455 | DOI

[87] Moffitt, R. L.; Kemps, E.; Hannan, T. E.; Neumann, D. L.; Stopar, S. P.; Anderson, C. J. Implicit approach biases for physically active lifestyle cues, International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 18 (2019) no. 6, pp. 833-849 | DOI

[88] Moors, A.; Ellsworth, P. C.; Scherer, K. R.; Frijda, N. H. Appraisal theories of emotion: State of the art and future development, Emotion Review, Volume 5 (2013) no. 2, pp. 119-124 | DOI

[89] Muschalik, C.; Elfeddali, I.; Candel, M. J. J. M.; Crutzen, R.; de Vries, H. Does the discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes moderate the relationships between explicit attitude and (intention to) being physically active?, BMC Psychology, Volume 7 (2019) no. 1 | DOI

[90] Muschalik, C.; Elfeddali, I.; Candel, M. J. J. M.; de Vries, H. A longitudinal study on how implicit attitudes and explicit cognitions synergistically influence physical activity intention and behavior, BMC Psychology, Volume 6 (2018) no. 1 | DOI

[91] Nakagawa, S.; Johnson, P. C. D.; Schielzeth, H. The coefficient of determination R 2 and intra-class correlation coefficient from generalized linear mixed-effects models revisited and expanded, Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Volume 14 (2017) no. 134 | DOI

[92] Norman, D. A.; Shallice, T. Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior, Volume 4, Plenum Press, New York (1986), pp. 1-18 | DOI

[93] Nosek, B. A. Moderators of the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluation, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Volume 134 (2005) no. 4, pp. 565-584 | DOI

[94] O’Brien, C. M.; Ntoumanis, N.; Duda, J. L.; Kitas, G. D.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J. J. C. S.; Metsios, G. S.; Fenton, S. A. M. Pain and fatigue are longitudinally and bi-directionally associated with more sedentary time and less standing time in rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Volume 60 (2021) no. 10, pp. 4548-4557 | DOI

[95] Paladino, M.-P.; Castelli, L. On the immediate consequences of intergroup categorization: activation of approach and avoidance motor behavior toward ingroup and outgroup members, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 34 (2008) no. 6, pp. 755-768 | DOI

[96] Parsons, S. splithalf: Calculate task split half reliability estimates (Version 0.8.2) [R package], 2022 (

[97] Parsons, S.; Kruijt, A.-W.; Fox, E. Psychological science needs a standard practice of reporting the reliability of cognitive-behavioral measurements, Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, Volume 2 (2019) no. 4, pp. 378-395 | DOI

[98] Pechey, R.; Monsivais, P.; Ng, Y.-L.; Marteau, T. M. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption, Appetite, Volume 84 (2015), pp. 271-279 | DOI

[99] Preis, M. A.; Zellerhoff, M.; Brockmeyer, T. Approach bias modification training to increase physical activity: A pilot randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers, Journal of Health Psychology, Volume 26 (2020) no. 13, pp. 2470-2486 | DOI

[100] R Core Team R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria (Version 4.0.4) [Computer Software], 2021 (

[101] Rebar, A. L.; Ram, N.; Conroy, D. E. Using the EZ-diffusion model to score a Single-Category Implicit Association Test of physical activity, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 16 (2015), pp. 96-105 | DOI

[102] Rinck, M.; Becker, E. S. Approach and avoidance in fear of spiders, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Volume 38 (2007) no. 2, pp. 105-120 | DOI

[103] Rinck, M.; Wiers, R. W.; Becker, E. S.; Lindenmeyer, J. Relapse prevention in abstinent alcoholics by cognitive bias modification: Clinical effects of combining approach bias modification and attention bias modification., Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Volume 86 (2018) no. 12, pp. 1005-1016 | DOI

[104] Rotteveel, M.; Phaf, R. H. Automatic affective evaluation does not automatically predispose for arm flexion and extension., Emotion, Volume 4 (2004) no. 2, pp. 156-172 | DOI

[105] Rougier, M.; Muller, D.; Ric, F.; Alexopoulos, T.; Batailler, C.; Smeding, A.; Aubé, B. A new look at sensorimotor aspects in approach/avoidance tendencies: The role of visual whole-body movement information, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 76 (2018), pp. 42-53 | DOI

[106] Saint-Maurice, P. F.; Coughlan, D.; Kelly, S. P.; Keadle, S. K.; Cook, M. B.; Carlson, S. A.; Fulton, J. E.; Matthews, C. E. Association of leisure-time physical activity across the adult life course with all-cause and cause-specific mortality, JAMA Network Open, Volume 2 (2019) no. 3 | DOI

[107] Sala, M.; Baldwin, A. S.; Williams, D. M. Affective and cognitive predictors of affective response to exercise: Examining unique and overlapping variance, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 27 (2016), pp. 1-8 | DOI

[108] Saraiva, A. C.; Schüür, F.; Bestmann, S. Emotional valence and contextual affordances flexibly shape approach-avoidance movements, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 4 (2013) | DOI

[109] Seibt, B.; Neumann, R.; Nussinson, R.; Strack, F. Movement direction or change in distance? Self- and object-related approach–avoidance motions, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 44 (2008) no. 3, pp. 713-720 | DOI

[110] Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P. M.; Bargh, J. A. Nonconscious processes and health, Health Psychology, Volume 32 (2013) no. 5, pp. 460-473 | DOI

[111] Shupler, M. S.; Kramer, J. K.; Cragg, J. J.; Jutzeler, C. R.; Whitehurst, D. G. Pan-Canadian estimates of chronic pain prevalence from 2000 to 2014: A repeated cross-sectional survey analysis, The Journal of Pain, Volume 20 (2019) no. 5, pp. 557-565 | DOI

[112] Solarz, A. K. Latency of instrumental responses as a function of compatibility with the meaning of eliciting verbal signs, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Volume 59 (1960) no. 4, pp. 239-245 | DOI

[113] Stamatakis, E.; Ekelund, U.; Ding, D.; Hamer, M.; Bauman, A. E.; Lee, I.-M. Is the time right for quantitative public health guidelines on sitting? A narrative review of sedentary behaviour research paradigms and findings, British Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 53 (2019) no. 6, pp. 377-382 | DOI

[114] Steele, J.; Androulakis-Korakakis, P.; Carlson, L.; Williams, D.; Phillips, S.; Smith, D.; Schoenfeld, B. J.; Loenneke, J. P.; Winett, R.; Abe, T.; Dufour, S.; Franchi, M. V.; Sarto, F.; Lundberg, T. R.; Gentil, P.; Kvorning, T.; Giessing, J.; Sedliak, M.; Paoli, A.; Spotswood, F.; Lucas, A.; Fisher, J. P. The impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) related public-health measures on training behaviours of individuals previously participating in resistance training: A cross-sectional survey Study, Sports Medicine, Volume 51 (2021) no. 7, pp. 1561-1580 | DOI

[115] Taylor, C. T.; Amir, N. Modifying automatic approach action tendencies in individuals with elevated social anxiety symptoms, Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 50 (2012) no. 9, pp. 529-536 | DOI

[116] Vaes, J.; Paladino, M. P.; Castelli, L.; Leyens, J.-P.; Giovanazzi, A. On the behavioral consequences of infrahumanization: The implicit role of uniquely human emotions in intergroup relations., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 85 (2003) no. 6, pp. 1016-1034 | DOI

[117] Wentura, D.; Rothermund, K.; Bak, P. Automatic vigilance: The attention-grabbing power of approach- and avoidance-related social information., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 78 (2000) no. 6, pp. 1024-1037 | DOI

[118] Wiers, R. W.; Eberl, C.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E. S.; Lindenmeyer, J. Retraining automatic action tendencies changes alcoholic patients’ approach bias for alcohol and improves treatment outcome, Psychological Science, Volume 22 (2011) no. 4, pp. 490-497 | DOI

[119] Windsor, T. D.; Pearson, E. L.; Butterworth, P. Age group differences and longitudinal changes in approach-avoidance sensitivity: Findings from an 8-year longitudinal study, Journal of Research in Personality, Volume 46 (2012) no. 6, pp. 646-654 | DOI

[120] Wittekind, C. E.; Feist, A.; Schneider, B. C.; Moritz, S.; Fritzsche, A. The approach-avoidance task as an online intervention in cigarette smoking: A pilot study, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Volume 46 (2015), pp. 115-120 | DOI

[121] World Health Organization WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour, 2020 (

[122] World Health Organization Ageing and health, 2021 (

[123] World Health Organization, R. O. f. E. The Heidelberg guidelines for promoting physical activity among older persons. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1996 (

[124] Zempeltzi, M. M.; Kisse, M.; Brunk, M. G. K.; Glemser, C.; Aksit, S.; Deane, K. E.; Maurya, S.; Schneider, L.; Ohl, F. W.; Deliano, M.; Happel, M. F. K. Task rule and choice are reflected by layer-specific processing in rodent auditory cortical microcircuits, Communications Biology, Volume 3 (2020) no. 1 | DOI

[125] Zenko, Z.; Ekkekakis, P. Critical review of measurement practices in the study of automatic associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 41 (2019a) no. 5, pp. 271-288 | DOI

[126] Zenko, Z.; Ekkekakis, P. Internal consistency and validity of measures of automatic exercise associations, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 43 (2019b), pp. 4-15 | DOI

[127] Znanewitz, J.; Braun, L.; Hensel, D.; Altobelli, C. F.; Hattke, F. A critical comparison of selected implicit measurement methods, Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, Volume 11 (2018) no. 4, pp. 249-266 | DOI

[128] Boisgontier, M. P. Aging of the automatic tendency to engage in or avoid physical activity and sedentary behavior. [Preregistration], 2021 | DOI

[129] Millisecond Software Inquisit 6 (Version 6.5.2) [Computer software], 2021 (

[130] van Stralen, M. M.; De Vries, H.; Mudde, A. N.; Bolman, C.; Lechner, L. Determinants of initiation and maintenance of physical activity among older adults: a literature review, Health Psychology Review, Volume 3 (2009) no. 2, pp. 147-207 | DOI

Cited by Sources: