Soil variation response is mediated by growth trajectories rather than functional traits in a widespread pioneer Neotropical tree

10.24072/pcjournal.262 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e50.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI

1. Trait-environment relationships have been described at the community level across tree species. However, whether interspecific trait-environment relationships are consistent at the intraspecific level is yet unknown. Moreover, we do not know how consistent is the response between organ vs. whole-tree level. 2. We examined phenotypic variability for 16 functional leaf (dimensions, nutrient, chlorophyll) and wood traits (density) across two soil types, Ferralitic Soil (FS) vs. White Sands (WS), on two sites for 70 adult trees of Cecropia obtusa Trécul (Urticaceae) in French Guiana. Cecropia is a widespread pioneer Neotropical genus that generally dominates early successional forest stages. To understand how soil types impact resource use through the processes of growth and branching, we examined the architectural development with a retrospective analysis of growth trajectories. We expect soil types to affect both, functional traits in relation to resource acquisition strategy as already described at the interspecific level, and growth strategies due to resource limitations with reduced growth on poor soils. 3. Functional traits were not involved in the soil response, as only two traits -leaf residual water content and K content-showed significant differences across soil types. Soil effects were stronger on growth trajectories, with WS trees having the slowest growth trajectories and less numerous branches across their lifespan. 4. The analysis of growth trajectories based on architectural analysis improved our ability to characterise the response of trees with soil types. The intraspecific variability is higher for growth trajectories than functional traits for  C. obtusa, revealing the complementarity of the architectural approach with the functional approach to gain insights on the way trees manage their resources over their lifetime. Soil-related responses of Cecropia functional traits are not the same as those at the interspecific level, suggesting that the effects of the acting ecological processes are different between the two levels. Apart from soil differences, much variation was found across sites, which calls for further investigation of the factors shaping growth trajectories in tropical forests.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.262
Keywords: architecture, Cecropia obtusa, ferralitic/white-sand soils, functional traits, growth trajectory, intraspecific variability
Levionnois, Sébastien 1; Tysklind, Niklas 1; Nicolini, Eric 2; Ferry, Bruno 3; Troispoux, Valérie 1; Le Moguedec, Gilles 2; Morel, Hélène 1; Stahl, Clément 1; Coste, Sabrina 1; Caron, Henri 2, 4; Heuret, Patrick 1, 2

1 UMR EcoFoG, AgroParisTech, CIRAD, CNRS, INRAE, Université des Antilles, Université de Guyane, 97310 Kourou, France
2 UMR AMAP, Université de Montpellier, CIRAD, CNRS, INRAE, IRD, 34398 Montpellier, France
3 UMR SILVA, AgroParisTech, INRAE, 54280 Champenoux, France
4 UMR BIOGECO, INRAE, Université de Bordeaux, Cestas, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
     author = {Levionnois, S\'ebastien and Tysklind, Niklas and Nicolini, Eric and Ferry, Bruno and Troispoux, Val\'erie and Le Moguedec, Gilles and Morel, H\'el\`ene and Stahl, Cl\'ement and Coste, Sabrina and Caron, Henri and Heuret, Patrick},
     title = {Soil variation response is mediated by growth trajectories rather than functional traits in a widespread pioneer {Neotropical} tree
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e50},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {3},
     year = {2023},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.262},
     url = {}
AU  - Levionnois, Sébastien
AU  - Tysklind, Niklas
AU  - Nicolini, Eric
AU  - Ferry, Bruno
AU  - Troispoux, Valérie
AU  - Le Moguedec, Gilles
AU  - Morel, Hélène
AU  - Stahl, Clément
AU  - Coste, Sabrina
AU  - Caron, Henri
AU  - Heuret, Patrick
TI  - Soil variation response is mediated by growth trajectories rather than functional traits in a widespread pioneer Neotropical tree

JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2023
VL  - 3
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  -
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.262
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_262
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%A Levionnois, Sébastien
%A Tysklind, Niklas
%A Nicolini, Eric
%A Ferry, Bruno
%A Troispoux, Valérie
%A Le Moguedec, Gilles
%A Morel, Hélène
%A Stahl, Clément
%A Coste, Sabrina
%A Caron, Henri
%A Heuret, Patrick
%T Soil variation response is mediated by growth trajectories rather than functional traits in a widespread pioneer Neotropical tree

%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2023
%V 3
%I Peer Community In
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.262
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_262
Levionnois, Sébastien; Tysklind, Niklas; Nicolini, Eric; Ferry, Bruno; Troispoux, Valérie; Le Moguedec, Gilles; Morel, Hélène; Stahl, Clément; Coste, Sabrina; Caron, Henri; Heuret, Patrick. Soil variation response is mediated by growth trajectories rather than functional traits in a widespread pioneer Neotropical tree
. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e50. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.262.

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.ecology.100041

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

[1] Adams, H. D.; Zeppel, M. J. B.; Anderegg, W. R. L.; Hartmann, H.; Landhäusser, S. M.; Tissue, D. T.; Huxman, T. E.; Hudson, P. J.; Franz, T. E.; Allen, C. D.; Anderegg, L. D. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Beerling, D. J.; Breshears, D. D.; Brodribb, T. J.; Bugmann, H.; Cobb, R. C.; Collins, A. D.; Dickman, L. T.; Duan, H.; Ewers, B. E.; Galiano, L.; Galvez, D. A.; Garcia-Forner, N.; Gaylord, M. L.; Germino, M. J.; Gessler, A.; Hacke, U. G.; Hakamada, R.; Hector, A.; Jenkins, M. W.; Kane, J. M.; Kolb, T. E.; Law, D. J.; Lewis, J. D.; Limousin, J.-M.; Love, D. M.; Macalady, A. K.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Mencuccini, M.; Mitchell, P. J.; Muss, J. D.; O’Brien, M. J.; O’Grady, A. P.; Pangle, R. E.; Pinkard, E. A.; Piper, F. I.; Plaut, J. A.; Pockman, W. T.; Quirk, J.; Reinhardt, K.; Ripullone, F.; Ryan, M. G.; Sala, A.; Sevanto, S.; Sperry, J. S.; Vargas, R.; Vennetier, M.; Way, D. A.; Xu, C.; Yepez, E. A.; McDowell, N. G. A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality, Nature Ecology & Evolution, Volume 1 (2017) no. 9, pp. 1285-1291 | DOI

[2] Adeney, J. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Vicentini, A.; Cohn‐Haft, M. White‐sand Ecosystems in Amazonia, Biotropica, Volume 48 (2016) no. 1, pp. 7-23 | DOI

[3] Allié, E.; Pélissier, R.; Engel, J.; Petronelli, P.; Freycon, V.; Deblauwe, V.; Soucémarianadin, L.; Weigel, J.; Baraloto, C. Pervasive Local-Scale Tree-Soil Habitat Association in a Tropical Forest Community, PLOS ONE, Volume 10 (2015) no. 11 | DOI

[4] Anderegg, W. R. L.; Klein, T.; Bartlett, M.; Sack, L.; Pellegrini, A. F. A.; Choat, B.; Jansen, S. Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 113 (2016) no. 18, pp. 5024-5029 | DOI

[5] Atger, C.; Edelin, C. Premières données sur l'architecture comparée des systèmes racinaires et caulinaires, Canadian Journal of Botany, Volume 72 (1994) no. 7, pp. 963-975 | DOI

[6] Baraloto, C.; Timothy Paine, C. E.; Poorter, L.; Beauchene, J.; Bonal, D.; Domenach, A.-M.; Hérault, B.; Patiño, S.; Roggy, J.-C.; Chave, J. Decoupled leaf and stem economics in rain forest trees, Ecology Letters, Volume 13 (2010) no. 11, pp. 1338-1347 | DOI

[7] Bartlett, M. K.; Scoffoni, C.; Sack, L. The determinants of leaf turgor loss point and prediction of drought tolerance of species and biomes: a global meta-analysis, Ecology Letters, Volume 15 (2012) no. 5, pp. 393-405 | DOI

[8] Bettiati, D.; Petit, G.; Anfodillo, T. Testing the equi-resistance principle of the xylem transport system in a small ash tree: empirical support from anatomical analyses, Tree Physiology, Volume 32 (2012) no. 2, pp. 171-177 | DOI

[9] Borges, E. R.; Prado-Junior, J.; Santana, L. D.; Delgado, C. N.; Raymundo, D.; Ribeiro, J. H. C.; Rossatto, D. R.; Carvalho, F. A. Trait variation of a generalist tree species (Eremanthus erythropappus, Asteraceae) in two adjacent mountain habitats: savanna and cloud forest, Australian Journal of Botany, Volume 66 (2018) no. 8 | DOI

[10] Borregaard, M. K.; Rahbek, C. Causality of the Relationship between Geographic Distribution and Species Abundance, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Volume 85 (2010) no. 1, pp. 3-25 | DOI

[11] Boulangeat, I.; Lavergne, S.; Van Es, J.; Garraud, L.; Thuiller, W. Niche breadth, rarity and ecological characteristics within a regional flora spanning large environmental gradients, Journal of Biogeography, Volume 39 (2011) no. 1, pp. 204-214 | DOI

[12] Charles-Dominique, T.; Mangenet, T.; Rey, H.; Jourdan, C.; Edelin, C. Architectural analysis of root system of sexually vs. vegetatively propagated yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.), a tuber monocot, Plant and Soil, Volume 317 (2008) no. 1-2, pp. 61-77 | DOI

[13] Chessel, D.; Dufour, A.-B.; Thioulouse, J. The ade4 package - I : One-table methods, R News, Volume 4 (2004), pp. 5-10

[14] Clark, D. B.; Palmer, M. W.; Clark, D. A. Edaphic factors and the landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest trees, Ecology, Volume 80 (1999) no. 8, pp. 2662-2675 | DOI

[15] Coste, S.; Roggy, J.-C.; Garraud, L.; Heuret, P.; Nicolini, E.; Dreyer, E. Does ontogeny modulate irradiance-elicited plasticity of leaf traits in saplings of rain-forest tree species? A test with Dicorynia guianensis and Tachigali melinonii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae), Annals of Forest Science, Volume 66 (2009) no. 7, p. 709-709 | DOI

[16] Daly, D. C.; Silveira, M.; Medeiros, H.; Castro, W.; Obermüller, F. A. The White‐sand Vegetation of Acre, Brazil, Biotropica, Volume 48 (2016) no. 1, pp. 81-89 | DOI

[17] Dang-Le, A. T.; Edelin, C.; Le-Cong, K. Ontogenetic variations in leaf morphology of the tropical rain forest species Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don, Trees, Volume 27 (2013) no. 3, pp. 773-786 | DOI

[18] Davis, R. B. Seasonal differences in intermodal lengths in Cecropia trees; a suggested method for measurement of past growth in height, Turrialba, Volume 20 (1970), pp. 100-104 (

[19] Dejean, A.; Grangier, J.; Leroy, C.; Orivel, J. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca, Naturwissenschaften, Volume 96 (2008) no. 1, pp. 57-63 | DOI

[20] Eller, C.; de V. Barros, F.; Bittencourt, P.; Rowland, L.; Mencuccini, M.; Oliveira, R. Xylem hydraulic safety and construction costs determine tropical tree growth, Plant, Cell & Environment, Volume 41 (2018) no. 3, pp. 548-562 | DOI

[21] Fine, P. V. A.; Baraloto, C. Habitat Endemism in White‐sand Forests: Insights into the Mechanisms of Lineage Diversification and Community Assembly of the Neotropical Flora, Biotropica, Volume 48 (2016) no. 1, pp. 24-33 | DOI

[22] Fine, P. V. A.; García-Villacorta, R.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Mesones, I.; Kembel, S. W. A Floristic Study of the White-Sand Forests of Peru, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Volume 97 (2010) no. 3, pp. 283-305 | DOI

[23] Fine, P. V. A.; Mesones, I.; Coley, P. D. Herbivores Promote Habitat Specialization by Trees in Amazonian Forests, Science, Volume 305 (2004) no. 5684, pp. 663-665 | DOI

[24] Fine, P. V. A.; Metz, M. R.; Lokvam, J.; Mesones, I.; Zuñiga, J. M. A.; Lamarre, G. P. A.; Pilco, M. V.; Baraloto, C. Insect herbivores, chemical innovation, and the evolution of habitat specialization in Amazonian trees, Ecology, Volume 94 (2013) no. 8, pp. 1764-1775 | DOI

[25] Fine, P. V. A.; Miller, Z. J.; Mesones, I.; Irazuzta, S.; Appel, H. M.; Stevens, M. H. H.; Sääksjärvi, I.; Schultz, J. C.; Coley, P. D. The Growth–Defense Trade-Off And Habitat Specialization By Plants In Amazonian Forests, Ecology, Volume 87 (2006) no. sp7 | DOI

[26] Folgarait, P. J.; Davidson, D. W. Antiherbivore Defenses of Myrmecophytic Cecropia under Different Light Regimes, Oikos, Volume 71 (1994) no. 2 | DOI

[27] Folgarait, P. J.; Davidson, D. W. Myrmecophytic Cecropia: antiherbivore defenses under different nutrient treatments, Oecologia, Volume 104 (1995) no. 2, pp. 189-206 | DOI

[28] Fortunel, C.; Fine, P. V. A.; Baraloto, C. Leaf, stem and root tissue strategies across 758 Neotropical tree species, Functional Ecology, Volume 26 (2012) no. 5, pp. 1153-1161 | DOI

[29] Fortunel, C.; Paine, C. E. T.; Fine, P. V. A.; Kraft, N. J. B.; Baraloto, C. Environmental factors predict community functional composition in Amazonian forests, Journal of Ecology, Volume 102 (2013) no. 1, pp. 145-155 | DOI

[30] Fortunel, C.; Ruelle, J.; Beauchêne, J.; Fine, P. V. A.; Baraloto, C. Wood specific gravity and anatomy of branches and roots in 113 Amazonian rainforest tree species across environmental gradients, New Phytologist, Volume 202 (2013) no. 1, pp. 79-94 | DOI

[31] Freschet, G. T.; Valverde‐Barrantes, O. J.; Tucker, C. M.; Craine, J. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Violle, C.; Fort, F.; Blackwood, C. B.; Urban‐Mead, K. R.; Iversen, C. M.; Bonis, A.; Comas, L. H.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Dong, M.; Guo, D.; Hobbie, S. E.; Holdaway, R. J.; Kembel, S. W.; Makita, N.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Picon‐Cochard, C.; Reich, P. B.; Riva, E. G.; Smith, S. W.; Soudzilovskaia, N. A.; Tjoelker, M. G.; Wardle, D. A.; Roumet, C. Climate, soil and plant functional types as drivers of global fine‐root trait variation, Journal of Ecology, Volume 105 (2017) no. 5, pp. 1182-1196 | DOI

[32] Freschet, G. T.; Violle, C.; Bourget, M. Y.; Scherer-Lorenzen, M.; Fort, F. Allocation, morphology, physiology, architecture: the multiple facets of plant above- and below-ground responses to resource stress, New Phytologist, Volume 219 (2018) no. 4, pp. 1338-1352 | DOI

[33] Fridley, J. D.; Grime, J. P. Community and ecosystem effects of intraspecific genetic diversity in grassland microcosms of varying species diversity, Ecology, Volume 91 (2010) no. 8, pp. 2272-2283 | DOI

[34] Fyllas, N. M.; Patiño, S.; Baker, T. R.; Bielefeld Nardoto, G.; Martinelli, L. A.; Quesada, C. A.; Paiva, R.; Schwarz, M.; Horna, V.; Mercado, L. M.; Santos, A.; Arroyo, L.; Jiménez, E. M.; Luizão, F. J.; Neill, D. A.; Silva, N.; Prieto, A.; Rudas, A.; Silviera, M.; Vieira, I. C. G.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J. Basin-wide variations in foliar properties of Amazonian forest: phylogeny, soils and climate, Biogeosciences, Volume 6 (2009) no. 11, pp. 2677-2708 | DOI

[35] Genolini, C.; Falissard, B. KmL: k-means for longitudinal data, Computational Statistics, Volume 25 (2009) no. 2, pp. 317-328 | DOI

[36] Godin, C.; Caraglio, Y. A Multiscale Model of Plant Topological Structures, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 191 (1998) no. 1, pp. 1-46 | DOI

[37] Godin, C.; Caraglio, Y.; Costes, E. Exploring plant topological structure with the AMAPmod software: an outline, Silva Fennica, Volume 31 (1997) no. 3 | DOI

[38] Jaouen, G. Paracou forest permanent plots details, CIRAD Dataverse, 2022 | DOI

[39] Grubb, P. J.; Coomes, D. A. Seed mass and nutrient content in nutrient-starved tropical rainforest in Venezuela, Seed Science Research, Volume 7 (1997) no. 3, pp. 269-280 | DOI

[40] Guédon, Y.; Barthélémy, D.; Caraglio, Y.; Costes, E. Pattern Analysis in Branching and Axillary Flowering Sequences, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 212 (2001) no. 4, pp. 481-520 | DOI

[41] Guédon, Y.; Caraglio, Y.; Heuret, P.; Lebarbier, E.; Meredieu, C. Analyzing growth components in trees, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 248 (2007) no. 3, pp. 418-447 | DOI

[42] Heuret, P.; Barthelemy, D.; Guedon, Y.; Coulmier, X.; Tancre, J. Synchronization of growth, branching and flowering processes in the South American tropical tree Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae), American Journal of Botany, Volume 89 (2002) no. 7, pp. 1180-1187 | DOI

[43] Heuret, P.; Meredieu, C.; Coudurier, T.; Courdier, F.; Barthelemy, D. Ontogenetic trends in the morphological features of main stem annual shoots of Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae), American Journal of Botany, Volume 93 (2006) no. 11, pp. 1577-1587 | DOI

[44] HilleRisLambers, J.; Adler, P.; Harpole, W.; Levine, J.; Mayfield, M. Rethinking Community Assembly through the Lens of Coexistence Theory, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Volume 43 (2012) no. 1, pp. 227-248 | DOI

[45] Holt, A. R.; Gaston, K. J.; He, F. Occupancy-abundance relationships and spatial distribution: A review, Basic and Applied Ecology, Volume 3 (2002) no. 1, pp. 1-13 | DOI

[46] Jung, V.; Albert, C. H.; Violle, C.; Kunstler, G.; Loucougaray, G.; Spiegelberger, T. Intraspecific trait variability mediates the response of subalpine grassland communities to extreme drought events, Journal of Ecology, Volume 102 (2013) no. 1, pp. 45-53 | DOI

[47] Jung, V.; Violle, C.; Mondy, C.; Hoffmann, L.; Muller, S. Intraspecific variability and trait-based community assembly, Journal of Ecology, Volume 98 (2010) no. 5, pp. 1134-1140 | DOI

[48] Kassambara, A.; Mundt, F. Factoextra: Extract and Visualize the Results of Multivariate Data Analyses., R project, 2016 (

[49] Kraft, N. J. B.; Adler, P. B.; Godoy, O.; James, E. C.; Fuller, S.; Levine, J. M. Community assembly, coexistence and the environmental filtering metaphor, Functional Ecology, Volume 29 (2014) no. 5, pp. 592-599 | DOI

[50] Kraft, N. J. B.; Crutsinger, G. M.; Forrestel, E. J.; Emery, N. C. Functional trait differences and the outcome of community assembly: an experimental test with vernal pool annual plants, Oikos, Volume 123 (2014) no. 11, pp. 1391-1399 | DOI

[51] Kraft, N. J. B.; Valencia, R.; Ackerly, D. D. Functional Traits and Niche-Based Tree Community Assembly in an Amazonian Forest, Science, Volume 322 (2008) no. 5901, pp. 580-582 | DOI

[52] Latteman, T. A.; Mead, J. E.; DuVall, M. A.; Bunting, C. C.; Bevington, J. M. Differences in Anti-Herbivore Defenses in Non-Myrmecophyte and Myrmecophyte Cecropia Trees, Biotropica, Volume 46 (2014) no. 6, pp. 652-656 | DOI

[53] Lehnebach, R.; Bossu, J.; Va, S.; Morel, H.; Amusant, N.; Nicolini, E.; Beauchêne, J. Wood Density Variations of Legume Trees in French Guiana along the Shade Tolerance Continuum: Heartwood Effects on Radial Patterns and Gradients, Forests, Volume 10 (2019) no. 2 | DOI

[54] Lepš, J.; de Bello, F.; Šmilauer, P.; Doležal, J. Community trait response to environment: disentangling species turnover vs intraspecific trait variability effects, Ecography, Volume 34 (2011) no. 5, pp. 856-863 | DOI

[55] Letort, V.; Heuret, P.; Zalamea, P.-C.; De Reffye, P.; Nicolini, E. Analysing the effects of local environment on the source-sink balance of Cecropia sciadophylla: a methodological approach based on model inversion, Annals of Forest Science, Volume 69 (2011) no. 2, pp. 167-180 | DOI

[56] Levionnois, S. Soil variation response is mediated by growth trajectories rather than functional traits in a widespread pioneer Neotropical tree [Data set], Zenodo, 2023 | DOI

[57] Marschner, H. 8 - Functions of Mineral Nutrients: Macronutrients In: Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants (Second Edition), Academic Press, London (1995), pp. 229-312

[58] Mathieu, A.; Letort, V.; Cournède, P.; Zhang, B.; Heuret, P.; de Reffye, P. Oscillations in Functional Structural Plant Growth Models, Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena, Volume 7 (2012) no. 6, pp. 47-66 | DOI

[59] Mcgill, B.; Enquist, B.; Weiher, E.; Westoby, M. Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 21 (2006) no. 4, pp. 178-185 | DOI

[60] Munoz, F. Growth trajectories, better than organ-level functional traits, reveal intraspecific response to environmental variation, Peer Community In Ecology (2020) | DOI

[61] Niklas, K. J. Maximum plant height and the biophysical factors that limit it, Tree Physiology, Volume 27 (2007) no. 3, pp. 433-440 | DOI

[62] O'Brien, M. J.; Engelbrecht, B. M. J.; Joswig, J.; Pereyra, G.; Schuldt, B.; Jansen, S.; Kattge, J.; Landhäusser, S. M.; Levick, S. R.; Preisler, Y.; Väänänen, P.; Macinnis-Ng, C. A synthesis of tree functional traits related to drought-induced mortality in forests across climatic zones, Journal of Applied Ecology, Volume 54 (2017) no. 6, pp. 1669-1686 | DOI

[63] Oldham, A. R.; Sillett, S. C.; Tomescu, A. M. F.; Koch, G. W. The hydrostatic gradient, not light availability, drives height‐related variation in Sequoia sempervirens (Cupressaceae) leaf anatomy, American Journal of Botany, Volume 97 (2010) no. 7, pp. 1087-1097 | DOI

[64] Paine, C. E. T.; Baraloto, C.; Chave, J.; Hérault, B. Functional traits of individual trees reveal ecological constraints on community assembly in tropical rain forests, Oikos, Volume 120 (2011) no. 5, pp. 720-727 | DOI

[65] Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares deAlmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin, Biogeosciences, Volume 6 (2009) no. 4, pp. 545-568 | DOI

[66] Pradal, C.; Coste, J.; Boudon, F.; Fournier, C.; Godin, C. OpenAlea 2.0: Architecture of an integrated modeling environment on the web. Finnish Society of Forest Science., Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Functional- Structural Plant Models (FSPM2013), Saariselkä, Finland, 9-14 June 2013. Eds. Risto Sievänen, Eero Nikinmaa, Christophe Godin, Anna Lintunen, Pekka Nygren. Vantaa : Finnish Society of Forest Science, 213. ISBN 978-951-651-408-9 International Conference on Functional-Structural Plant Models. 7, Saariselkä, Finlande, 9 Juin 2013/14 Juin 2013, 2013 (

[67] Prendin, A. L.; Mayr, S.; Beikircher, B.; von Arx, G.; Petit, G. Xylem anatomical adjustments prioritize hydraulic efficiency over safety as Norway spruce trees grow taller, Tree Physiology, Volume 38 (2018) no. 8, pp. 1088-1097 | DOI

[68] R Core Team R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2018

[69] Reich, P. B. The world-wide ‘fast-slow’ plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto, Journal of Ecology, Volume 102 (2014) no. 2, pp. 275-301 | DOI

[70] Roggy, J. C.; Nicolini, E.; Imbert, P.; Caraglio, Y.; Bosc, A.; Heuret, P. Links between tree structure and functional leaf traits in the tropical forest tree Dicorynia guianensis Amshoff (Caesalpiniaceae), Annals of Forest Science, Volume 62 (2005) no. 6, pp. 553-564 | DOI

[71] Roy, M.; Schimann, H.; Braga-Neto, R.; Da Silva, R. A. E.; Duque, J.; Frame, D.; Wartchow, F.; Neves, M. A. Diversity and Distribution of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi from Amazonian Lowland White-sand Forests in Brazil and French Guiana, Biotropica, Volume 48 (2016) no. 1, pp. 90-100 | DOI

[72] Rungwattana, K.; Hietz, P. Radial variation of wood functional traits reflect size‐related adaptations of tree mechanics and hydraulics, Functional Ecology, Volume 32 (2017) no. 2, pp. 260-272 | DOI

[73] Ryan, M. G.; Phillips, N.; Bond, B. J. The hydraulic limitation hypothesis revisited, Plant, Cell and Environment, Volume 29 (2006) no. 3, pp. 367-381 | DOI

[74] Sabatier, D.; Grimaldi, M.; Prévost, M.-F.; Guillaume, J.; Godron, M.; Dosso, M.; Sabatier, D. The influence of soil cover organization on the floristic and structural heterogeneity of a Guianan rain forest, Plant Ecology formerly `Vegetatio', Volume 131 (1997) no. 1, pp. 81-108 | DOI

[75] Schamp, B. S.; Chau, J.; Aarssen, L. W. Dispersion of traits related to competitive ability in an old-field plant community, Journal of Ecology, Volume 96 (2007), pp. 204-212 | DOI

[76] Schupp, E. W. Azteca protection of Cecropia: ant occupation benefits juvenile trees, Oecologia, Volume 70 (1986) no. 3, pp. 379-385 | DOI

[77] Shipley, B.; De Bello, F.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Laliberté, E.; Laughlin, D. C.; Reich, P. B. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology, Oecologia, Volume 180 (2016) no. 4, pp. 923-931 | DOI

[78] Sides, C. B.; Enquist, B. J.; Ebersole, J. J.; Smith, M. N.; Henderson, A. N.; Sloat, L. L. Revisiting Darwin's hypothesis: Does greater intraspecific variability increase species' ecological breadth?, American Journal of Botany, Volume 101 (2013) no. 1, pp. 56-62 | DOI

[79] ter Steege, H.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Sabatier, D.; Baraloto, C.; Salomão, R. P.; Guevara, J. E.; Phillips, O. L.; Castilho, C. V.; Magnusson, W. E.; Molino, J.-F.; Monteagudo, A.; Núñez Vargas, P.; Montero, J. C.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Coronado, E. N. H.; Killeen, T. J.; Mostacedo, B.; Vasquez, R.; Assis, R. L.; Terborgh, J.; Wittmann, F.; Andrade, A.; Laurance, W. F.; Laurance, S. G. W.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon, B.-H.; Guimarães Vieira, I. C.; Amaral, I. L.; Brienen, R.; Castellanos, H.; Cárdenas López, D.; Duivenvoorden, J. F.; Mogollón, H. F.; Matos, F. D. d. A.; Dávila, N.; García-Villacorta, R.; Stevenson Diaz, P. R.; Costa, F.; Emilio, T.; Levis, C.; Schietti, J.; Souza, P.; Alonso, A.; Dallmeier, F.; Montoya, A. J. D.; Fernandez Piedade, M. T.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arroyo, L.; Gribel, R.; Fine, P. V. A.; Peres, C. A.; Toledo, M.; Aymard C., G. A.; Baker, T. R.; Cerón, C.; Engel, J.; Henkel, T. W.; Maas, P.; Petronelli, P.; Stropp, J.; Zartman, C. E.; Daly, D.; Neill, D.; Silveira, M.; Paredes, M. R.; Chave, J.; Lima Filho, D. d. A.; Jørgensen, P. M.; Fuentes, A.; Schöngart, J.; Cornejo Valverde, F.; Di Fiore, A.; Jimenez, E. M.; Peñuela Mora, M. C.; Phillips, J. F.; Rivas, G.; van Andel, T. R.; von Hildebrand, P.; Hoffman, B.; Zent, E. L.; Malhi, Y.; Prieto, A.; Rudas, A.; Ruschell, A. R.; Silva, N.; Vos, V.; Zent, S.; Oliveira, A. A.; Schutz, A. C.; Gonzales, T.; Trindade Nascimento, M.; Ramirez-Angulo, H.; Sierra, R.; Tirado, M.; Umaña Medina, M. N.; van der Heijden, G.; Vela, C. I. A.; Vilanova Torre, E.; Vriesendorp, C.; Wang, O.; Young, K. R.; Baider, C.; Balslev, H.; Ferreira, C.; Mesones, I.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Urrego Giraldo, L. E.; Zagt, R.; Alexiades, M. N.; Hernandez, L.; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I.; Milliken, W.; Palacios Cuenca, W.; Pauletto, D.; Valderrama Sandoval, E.; Valenzuela Gamarra, L.; Dexter, K. G.; Feeley, K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Silman, M. R. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian Tree Flora, Science, Volume 342 (2013) no. 6156 | DOI

[80] Stropp, J.; Sleen, P. V. d.; Assunção, P. A.; Silva, A. L. d.; Steege, H. T. Tree communities of white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro, Acta Amazonica, Volume 41 (2011) no. 4, pp. 521-544 | DOI

[81] Swenson, N. G.; Enquist, B. J. Opposing assembly mechanisms in a Neotropical dry forest: implications for phylogenetic and functional community ecology, Ecology, Volume 90 (2009) no. 8, pp. 2161-2170 | DOI

[82] Taugourdeau, O.; Dauzat, J.; Griffon, S.; Sabatier, S.; Caraglio, Y.; Barthélémy, D. Retrospective analysis of tree architecture in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.): ontogenetic trends and responses to environmental variability, Annals of Forest Science, Volume 69 (2012) no. 6, pp. 713-721 | DOI

[83] Uriarte, M.; Condit, R.; Canham, C. D.; Hubbell, S. P. A spatially explicit model of sapling growth in a tropical forest: does the identity of neighbours matter?, Journal of Ecology, Volume 92 (2004) no. 2, pp. 348-360 | DOI

[84] Urli, M.; Porte, A. J.; Cochard, H.; Guengant, Y.; Burlett, R.; Delzon, S. Xylem embolism threshold for catastrophic hydraulic failure in angiosperm trees, Tree Physiology, Volume 33 (2013) no. 7, pp. 672-683 | DOI

[85] Violle, C.; Enquist, B. J.; McGill, B. J.; Jiang, L.; Albert, C. H.; Hulshof, C.; Jung, V.; Messier, J. The return of the variance: intraspecific variability in community ecology, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 27 (2012) no. 4, pp. 244-252 | DOI

[86] Violle, C.; Navas, M.-L.; Vile, D.; Kazakou, E.; Fortunel, C.; Hummel, I.; Garnier, E. Let the concept of trait be functional!, Oikos, Volume 116 (2007) no. 5, pp. 882-892 | DOI

[87] Wagner, F.; Rossi, V.; Stahl, C.; Bonal, D.; Hérault, B. Water Availability Is the Main Climate Driver of Neotropical Tree Growth, PLoS ONE, Volume 7 (2012) no. 4 | DOI

[88] Zalamea, P.-C.; Heuret, P.; Sarmiento, C.; Rodríguez, M.; Berthouly, A.; Guitet, S.; Nicolini, E.; Delnatte, C.; Barthélémy, D.; Stevenson, P. R. The Genus Cecropia: A Biological Clock to Estimate the Age of Recently Disturbed Areas in the Neotropics, PLoS ONE, Volume 7 (2012) no. 8 | DOI

[89] Zalamea, P.-C.; Sarmiento, C.; Stevenson, P. R.; Rodríguez, M.; Nicolini, E.; Heuret, P. Effect of rainfall seasonality on the growth of Cecropia sciadophylla: intra-annual variation in leaf production and node length, Journal of Tropical Ecology, Volume 29 (2013) no. 4, pp. 361-365 | DOI

[90] Zalamea, P.-C.; Stevenson, P. R.; Madriñán, S.; Aubert, P.-M.; Heuret, P. Growth pattern and age determination for Cecropia sciadophylla (Urticaceae), American Journal of Botany, Volume 95 (2008) no. 3, pp. 263-271 | DOI

Cited by Sources: