Archaeology

Experimentation preceding innovation in a MIS5 Pre-Still Bay layer from Diepkloof Rock Shelter (South Africa): emerging technologies and symbols

10.24072/pcjournal.27 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article no. e20.

Get full text PDF

In southern Africa, key technologies and symbolic behaviors develop as early as the later Middle Stone Age in MIS5. These innovations arise independently in various places, contexts and forms, until their full expression during the Still Bay and the Howiesons Poort. The Middle Stone Age sequence from Diepkloof Rock Shelter, on the West Coast of the region, preserves archaeological proxies that help unravelling the cultural processes at work. This unit yields one of the oldest abstract engraving so far discovered in Africa, in the form of a rhomboid marking on the cortical surface of an ungulate long bone shaft. The comprehensive analysis of the lithic artefacts and ochre pieces found in association with the engraved bone documents the transport of rocks over long distance (>20km), the heat treatment of silcrete, the coexistence of seven lithic reduction strategies (including the production of bladelets and the manufacture of unifacial and bifacial points), the use of adhesives and the processing of ochre. At Diepkloof, the appearance of engraving practices take place in a context that demonstrates a shift in rock procurement and a diversification in lithic reduction strategies, suggesting that these behavioral practices acted as a cultural answer to cope with new environmental and/or socio-economic circumstances. We argue that the innovations later found during the Still Bay and the Howiesons Poort were already in the making during the MIS5 pre-Still Bay, though not all the benefits were yet taken advantage of by the populations.

Published online:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24072/pcjournal.27
@article{10_24072_pcjournal_27,
     author = {Porraz, Guillaume and Parkington, John E. and Schmidt, Patrick and Bereiziat, G\'erald and Brugal, Jean-Philippe and Dayet, Laure and Igreja, Marina and Miller, Christopher E. and Schmid, Viola C. and Tribolo, Chantal and Val, Aurore and Verna, Christine and Texier, Pierre-Jean},
     title = {Experimentation preceding innovation in a {MIS5} {Pre-Still} {Bay} layer from {Diepkloof} {Rock} {Shelter} {(South} {Africa):} emerging technologies and symbols},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e20},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {1},
     year = {2021},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.27},
     url = {https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.27/}
}
Porraz, Guillaume; Parkington, John E.; Schmidt, Patrick; Bereiziat, Gérald; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Dayet, Laure; Igreja, Marina; Miller, Christopher E.; Schmid, Viola C.; Tribolo, Chantal; Val, Aurore; Verna, Christine; Texier, Pierre-Jean. Experimentation preceding innovation in a MIS5 Pre-Still Bay layer from Diepkloof Rock Shelter (South Africa): emerging technologies and symbols. Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), article  no. e20. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.27. https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.27/

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.archaeo.100006

[1] Anderson, Helen Crossing the Line: The Early Expression of Pattern in Middle Stone Age Africa, Journal of World Prehistory, Volume 25 (2012) no. 3-4, pp. 183-204 | Article

[2] Archer, Will; Pop, Cornel M.; Gunz, Philipp; McPherron, Shannon P. What is Still Bay? Human biogeography and bifacial point variability, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 97 (2016), pp. 58-72 | Article

[3] Bamforth, Douglas B. Settlement, raw material, and lithic procurement in the central Mojave Desert, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, Volume 9 (1990) no. 1, pp. 70-104 | Article

[4] Barham, Lawrence S. The Bipolar Technique in Southern Africa: A Replication Experiment, The South African Archaeological Bulletin, Volume 42 (1987) no. 145 | Article

[5] Binford, L.R. Bones. Ancient Men and Modern Myths, Academic Press, New York, 1981

[6] Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Cuartero, Felipe; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran Using Bones to Shape Stones: MIS 9 Bone Retouchers at Both Edges of the Mediterranean Sea, PLoS ONE, Volume 8 (2013) no. 10 | Article

[7] Boëda, E. Techno-logique & Technologie. Une Paléo-histoire des objets lithiques tranchants, @rchéo-éditions.com, Paris, 2013

[8] Bouzouggar, A.; Barton, N.; Vanhaeren, M.; d'Errico, F.; Collcutt, S.; Higham, T.; Hodge, E.; Parfitt, S.; Rhodes, E.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Stringer, C.; Turner, E.; Ward, S.; Moutmir, A.; Stambouli, A. 82,000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 104 (2007) no. 24, pp. 9964-9969 | Article

[9] Brain, C.K. Some suggested procedures in the analysis of bone accumulations from southern African Quaternary sites, Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Volume 29 (1974)

[10] Bromage, Timothy G.; Boyde, Alan Microscopic criteria for the determination of directionality of cutmarks on bone, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 65 (1984) no. 4, pp. 359-366 | Article

[11] Brown, Kyle S.; Marean, Curtis W.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Tribolo, Chantal; Braun, David; Roberts, David L.; Meyer, Michael C.; Bernatchez, Jocelyn Fire As an Engineering Tool of Early Modern Humans, Science, Volume 325 (2009) no. 5942, pp. 859-862 | Article

[12] Brown, Kyle S.; Marean, Curtis W.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Tribolo, Chantal; Braun, David; Roberts, David L.; Meyer, Michael C.; Bernatchez, Jocelyn Fire As an Engineering Tool of Early Modern Humans, Science, Volume 325 (2012) no. 5942, pp. 859-862 | Article

[13] Brugal, J.P. Classes de taille chez les grands mammifères, TaphonomieS, J.P. Brugal (dir.), (Collection Sciences Archéologiques) (2017), pp. 472-476

[14] Cahen, Daniel; Keeley, Lawrence H. Not less than two, not more than three, World Archaeology, Volume 12 (1980) no. 2, pp. 166-180 | Article

[15] Cartwright, Caroline R. Identifying the woody resources of Diepkloof Rock Shelter (South Africa) using scanning electron microscopy of the MSA wood charcoal assemblages, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3463-3474 | Article

[16] Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Feldman, Marcus W. Cultural Transmission and Evolution (MPB-16), Volume 16, Princeton University Press, 1981 | Article

[17] Charrié-Duhaut, Armelle; Porraz, Guillaume; Cartwright, Caroline R.; Igreja, Marina; Connan, Jacques; Poggenpoel, Cedric; Texier, Pierre-Jean First molecular identification of a hafting adhesive in the Late Howiesons Poort at Diepkloof Rock Shelter (Western Cape, South Africa), Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3506-3518 | Article

[18] Clark, Jamie L.; Ligouis, Bertrand Burned bone in the Howieson’s Poort and post-Howieson’s Poort Middle Stone Age deposits at Sibudu (South Africa): behavioral and taphonomic implications, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 37 (2010) no. 10, pp. 2650-2661 | Article

[19] Cook, J. Marked human bones from Gough's Cave, Somerset, Proceedings of the University of Bristol Speleological Society, Volume 17 (1986)

[20] Conard, N. J. A critical view of the evidence for a southern African origin of behavioural modernity, Goodwin Series (2008)

[21] Conard, N. J.; Porraz, G.; Wadley, L. What is in a name? Characterising the 'Post-Howieson's Poort' at Sibudu, South African Archaeological Bulletin, Volume 67 (2012)

[22] Cresswell, Robert La nature cyclique des relations entre le technique et le social, De la préhistoire aux missiles balistiques. B. Latour & P. Lemonnier (Eds.), La Découverte, Paris, 1994, pp. 273-289 | Article

[23] Dayet, L.; Le Bourdonnec, F.-X.; Daniel, F.; Porraz, G.; Texier, P.-J. Ochre Provenance and Procurement Strategies During The Middle Stone Age at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa, Archaeometry, Volume 58 (2016) no. 5, pp. 807-829 | Article

[24] De Araujo Igreja, M., Relations entre l’outil et les modifications des matières dures animales. Approches expérimentale et archéologique sur ossements (1999)

[25] de Beaune, Sophie A. The Invention of Technology, Current Anthropology, Volume 45 (2004) no. 2, pp. 139-162 | Article

[26] de Beaune, S. Que nous dit la Préhistoire des conditions de l'invention ?, Technique et Création. Ivan Toulouse (Eurêka et Cie) (2012), pp. 53-70

[27] Delagnes, Anne; Schmidt, Patrick; Douze, Katja; Wurz, Sarah; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Conard, Nicholas J.; Nickel, Klaus G.; van Niekerk, Karen L.; Henshilwood, Christopher S. Early Evidence for the Extensive Heat Treatment of Silcrete in the Howiesons Poort at Klipdrift Shelter (Layer PBD, 65 ka), South Africa, PLOS ONE, Volume 11 (2016) no. 10 | Article

[28] de la Peña, Paloma A QUALITATIVE GUIDE TO RECOGNIZE BIPOLAR KNAPPING FOR FLINT AND QUARTZ, Lithic Technology, Volume 40 (2015) no. 4, pp. 316-331 | Article

[29] d’Errico, F. Etude technologique à base expérimentale des entailles sur matière dure animale, 25 ans d’études technologiques en Préhistoires (1991), pp. 83-97

[30] D'Errico, Francesco; David, Serge Analyse technologique de l'art mobilier. Le cas de l'abri des Cabônes à Ranchot (Jura), Gallia préhistoire, Volume 35 (1993) no. 1, pp. 139-176 | Article

[31] d’Errico, F.; Street, M.; Sanchez Goni, M. F. L’art gravé azilien. De la technique à la signification. , Gallia Préhistoire, Volume Suppléments 31 (1994)

[32] D'Errico, Francesco; Villa, Paola Holes and grooves: the contribution of microscopy and taphonomy to the problem of art origins, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 33 (1997) no. 1, pp. 1-31 | Article

[33] D'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher; Nilssen, Peter An engraved bone fragment from c. 70,000-year-old Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origin of symbolism and language, Antiquity, Volume 75 (2001) no. 288, pp. 309-318 | Article

[34] d'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher S. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 52 (2007) no. 2, pp. 142-163 | Article

[35] d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda R.; Wadley, Lyn Identifying regional variability in Middle Stone Age bone technology: The case of Sibudu Cave, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 39 (2012) no. 7, pp. 2479-2495 | Article

[36] d’Errico, Francesco; García Moreno, Renata; Rifkin, Riaan F. Technological, elemental and colorimetric analysis of an engraved ochre fragment from the Middle Stone Age levels of Klasies River Cave 1, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 39 (2012) no. 4, pp. 942-952 | Article

[37] d’Errico, Francesco; Colagè, Ivan Cultural Exaptation and Cultural Neural Reuse: A Mechanism for the Emergence of Modern Culture and Behavior, Biological Theory, Volume 13 (2018) no. 4, pp. 213-227 | Article

[38] Domanski, Marian; Webb, John A. Effect of heat treatment on siliceous rocks used in prehistoric lithic technology, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 19 (1992) no. 6, pp. 601-614 | Article

[39] Domínguez-Rodrigo, M.; de Juana, S.; Galán, A.B.; Rodríguez, M. A new protocol to differentiate trampling marks from butchery cut marks, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 36 (2009) no. 12, pp. 2643-2654 | Article

[40] Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.; Pickering, T. R.; Bunn, H. T. Configurational approach to identifying the earliest hominin butchers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 107 (2010) no. 49, pp. 20929-20934 | Article

[41] Driver, J., 2005 | Article

[42] Durham, W. H. Coevolution: Genes, culture, and human diversity, Stanford University Press, 1991

[43] Fiorillo, A. R. An experimental study of trampling: implications for the fossil record, Bone modification (1989), pp. 61-71

[44] Fisher, John W. Bone surface modifications in zooarchaeology, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, Volume 2 (1995) no. 1, pp. 7-68 | Article

[45] Foley, R. A.; Mirazón Lahr, M. The Evolution of the Diversity of Cultures, Culture Evolves, Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 251-268 | Article

[46] Fritz, Carole; Roussot, Alain L'art mobilier, Gallia préhistoire, Volume 41 (1999) no. 1, pp. 54-97 | Article

[47] Galán, A. B.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. An Experimental Study of the Anatomical Distribution of Cut Marks Created by Filleting and Disarticulation on Long Bone Ends, Archaeometry, Volume 55 (2013) no. 6, pp. 1132-1149 | Article

[48] Gille, B. Histoire des techniques, Gallimard, Paris, 1978

[49] Gould, Stephen Jay; Vrba, Elisabeth S. Exaptation—a Missing Term in the Science of Form, Paleobiology, Volume 8 (1982) no. 1, pp. 4-15 | Article

[50] Gravina, Brad; Discamps, Emmanuel MTA-B or not to be? Recycled bifaces and shifting hunting strategies at Le Moustier and their implication for the late Middle Palaeolithic in southwestern France, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 84 (2015), pp. 83-98 | Article

[51] HENRICH, JOSEPH The Secret of Our Success: how learning from others drove human evolution, domesticated our species, and made us smart, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2015 | Article

[52] Henrich, Joseph; McElreath, Richard The evolution of cultural evolution, Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, Volume 12 (2003) no. 3, pp. 123-135 | Article

[53] Henshilwood, Christopher S.; d'Errico, Francesco; Yates, Royden; Jacobs, Zenobia; Tribolo, Chantal; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Mercier, Norbert; Sealy, Judith C.; Valladas, Helene; Watts, Ian; Wintle, Ann G. Emergence of Modern Human Behavior: Middle Stone Age Engravings from South Africa, Science, Volume 295 (2002) no. 5558, pp. 1278-1280 | Article

[54] Henshilwood, Christopher; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; van Niekerk, Karen; Jacobs, Zenobia Middle Stone Age Shell Beads from South Africa, Science, Volume 304 (2004) no. 5669, p. 404-404 | Article

[55] Henshilwood, Christopher S.; d'Errico, Francesco; Watts, Ian Engraved ochres from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 57 (2009) no. 1, pp. 27-47 | Article

[56] Homo Symbolicus, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2011 | Article

[57] Henshilwood, Christopher S.; van Niekerk, Karen L.; Wurz, Sarah; Delagnes, Anne; Armitage, Simon J.; Rifkin, Riaan F.; Douze, Katja; Keene, Petro; Haaland, Magnus M.; Reynard, Jerome; Discamps, Emmanuel; Mienies, Samantha S. Klipdrift Shelter, southern Cape, South Africa: preliminary report on the Howiesons Poort layers, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 45 (2014), pp. 284-303 | Article

[58] Henshilwood, Christopher S.; d’Errico, Francesco; van Niekerk, Karen L.; Dayet, Laure; Queffelec, Alain; Pollarolo, Luca An abstract drawing from the 73,000-year-old levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa, Nature, Volume 562 (2018) no. 7725, pp. 115-118 | Article

[59] Jacobs, Zenobia; Roberts, Richard G.; Galbraith, Rex F.; Deacon, Hilary J.; Grün, Rainer; Mackay, Alex; Mitchell, Peter; Vogelsang, Ralf; Wadley, Lyn Ages for the Middle Stone Age of Southern Africa: Implications for Human Behavior and Dispersal, Science, Volume 322 (2008) no. 5902, pp. 733-735 | Article

[60] Jacobs, Zenobia; Roberts, Richard G. An improved single grain OSL chronology for the sedimentary deposits from Diepkloof Rockshelter, Western Cape, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63 (2015), pp. 175-192 | Article

[61] Jacobs, Zenobia; Roberts, Richard G. Single-grain OSL chronologies for the Still Bay and Howieson's Poort industries and the transition between them: Further analyses and statistical modelling, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 107 (2017), pp. 1-13 | Article

[62] de Juana, S.; Galán, A.B.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. Taphonomic identification of cut marks made with lithic handaxes: an experimental study, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 37 (2010) no. 8, pp. 1841-1850 | Article

[63] Kornprobst, J. Metamorphic Rocks and Their Geodynamic Significance. A Petrological Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002

[64] Kuhn, Steven L. Mousterian Lithic Technology, Princeton University Press, 1995 | Article

[65] Kuhn, Steven L. Emergent Patterns of Creativity and Innovation in Early Technologies, Developments in Quaternary Sciences, Elsevier, 2012, pp. 69-87 | Article

[66] Brun-Ricalens, Foni Le Les pièces esquillées : état des connaissances après un siècle de reconnaissance, Paléo (2006) no. 18, pp. 95-114 | Article

[67] Lemonnier, P. Technological choices: Transformation in material cultures since the Neolithic, Routledge, London, 1993

[68] Lombard, Marlize; Phillipson, Laurel Indications of bow and stone-tipped arrow use 64 000 years ago in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Antiquity, Volume 84 (2010) no. 325, pp. 635-648 | Article

[69] LEE LYMAN, R. Archaeofaunas and Butchery Studies: A Taphonomic Perspective, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Elsevier, 1987, pp. 249-337 | Article

[70] Lyman, R. Lee Vertebrate Taphonomy, Cambridge University Press, 1994 | Article

[71] Mallye, Jean-Baptiste; Thiébaut, Céline; Mourre, Vincent; Costamagno, Sandrine; Claud, Émilie; Weisbecker, Patrick The Mousterian bone retouchers of Noisetier Cave: experimentation and identification of marks, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 39 (2012) no. 4, pp. 1131-1142 | Article

[72] Marean, Curtis W.; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Bernatchez, Jocelyn; Fisher, Erich; Goldberg, Paul; Herries, Andy I. R.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Jerardino, Antonieta; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Minichillo, Tom; Nilssen, Peter J.; Thompson, Erin; Watts, Ian; Williams, Hope M. Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene, Nature, Volume 449 (2007) no. 7164, pp. 905-908 | Article

[73] Maté González, Miguel Ángel; Yravedra, José; González-Aguilera, Diego; Palomeque-González, Juan Francisco; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel Micro-photogrammetric characterization of cut marks on bones, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62 (2015), pp. 128-142 | Article

[74] Mcbrearty, Sally; Brooks, Alison S. The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 39 (2000) no. 5, pp. 453-563 | Article

[75] McElreath, Richard The Coevolution of Genes, Innovation, and Culture in Human Evolution, Mind the Gap, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010, pp. 451-474 | Article

[76] Meignen, L. Supports d'outils chauffés au Paléolithique moyen, Tailler! Pour quoi faire. Préhistoire et technologie lithique II. Recent progress in microwear studies, Studia Praehistorica Belgica, Volume 2 (1982), pp. 111-117

[77] Mesoudi, Alex Cultural Evolution: A Review of Theory, Findings and Controversies, Evolutionary Biology, Volume 43 (2016) no. 4, pp. 481-497 | Article

[78] Mesoudi, Alex; Whiten, Andrew; Laland, Kevin N. PERSPECTIVE: IS HUMAN CULTURAL EVOLUTION DARWINIAN? EVIDENCE REVIEWED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, Evolution, Volume 58 (2004) no. 1, pp. 1-11 | Article

[79] Miller, Christopher E.; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco Geoarchaeological investigations at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Western Cape, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3432-3452 | Article

[80] Morales Pérez, J. V.; Brugal, J. Ph.; Pérez Ripoll, M.; Galván Santos, B.; Hernández, C. La fracturación y fragmentación de huesos largos durante el paleolítico. una aproximación teórica y metodológica, Rovira Llorens, S., García-Heras, M., Gener Moret, M., Montero Ruiz, I. (Eds.), Actas VII Congresso Iobérico de Arqueometria, Madrid, 8-10 de octubre 2007, S1: Biomateriales (2008), pp. 64-76

[81] Monnier, Gilliane F.; Bischoff, Emily Size matters. An evaluation of descriptive and metric criteria for identifying cut marks made by unmodified rocks during butchery, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50 (2014), pp. 305-317 | Article

[82] Mourre, Vincent; Villa, Paola; Henshilwood, Christopher S. Early Use of Pressure Flaking on Lithic Artifacts at Blombos Cave, South Africa, Science, Volume 330 (2010) no. 6004, pp. 659-662 | Article

[83] Oliver, J. S. Analogues and site context: bone damages from Shield Trap cave (24CB91), Carbon county, Montana, USA, Bonnichsen, R., and Sorg, M.H. (Eds.), Bone Modification (1989), pp. 73-98

[84] Olsen, Sandra L.; Shipman, Pat Surface modification on bone: Trampling versus butchery, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 15 (1988) no. 5, pp. 535-553 | Article

[85] Palomeque-González, Juan Francisco; Maté-González, Miguel Ángel; Yravedra, José; Juan-Blazquez, María San; Vargas, Elena García; Martín-Perea, David Manuel; Estaca-Gómez, Verónica; González-Aguilera, Diego; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel Pandora: A new morphometric and statistical software for analysing and distinguishing cut marks on bones, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 13 (2017), pp. 60-66 | Article

[86] Pargeter, Justin; Schmidt, Patrick ‘Simple’ surface-fire heat treatment significantly improves silcrete flake quality and flaking efficiency, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 30 (2020) | Article

[87] Parkington, J.E.; Rigaud, J.-Ph.; Poggenpoel, C.; Porraz, G.; Texier, P.-J. Introduction to the project and excavation of Diepkloof Rock Shelter (Western Cape, South Africa): a view on the Middle Stone Age, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3369-3375 | Article

[88] Parkington, J. E.; Porraz, G. Elands Bay Cave and the stone age of the Verlorenvlei, South Africa, Southern African Humanities, 29, KwaZulu-Natal Museum, 2016

[89] Porraz, G. En marge du milieu alpin-Dynamiques de formation des ensembles lithiques et modes d'occupation des territoires au Paléolithique moyen, Ph. D. Dissertation (2005)

[90] Porraz, G. Middle Paleolithic mobile toolkits in short term human occupations: two case studies, Eurasian Prehistory, Volume 6 (2009)

[91] Porraz, Guillaume; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Archer, Will; Piboule, Michel; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Tribolo, Chantal Technological successions in the Middle Stone Age sequence of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Western Cape, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3376-3400 | Article

[92] Porraz, G.; Texier, J.P.; Miller, C.E. Le complexe bifacial Still Bay et ses modalités d’émergence à l’abri Diepkloof (Middle Stone Age, Afrique du Sud). In: XXVIIème Congrès Préhistorique de France, Transitions, Ruptures et Continuité en Préhistoire, Mémoires de la Société Préhistorique Française (2014)

[93] Porraz, G.; Igreja, M.; Schmidt, P.; Parkington, J.E. A shape to the microlithic Robberg from Elands Bay Cave (South Africa), Southern African Humanities, Volume 29 (2016)

[94] Porraz, Guillaume; Val, Aurore; Tribolo, Chantal; Mercier, Norbert; de la Peña, Paloma; Haaland, Magnus M.; Igreja, Marina; Miller, Christopher E.; Schmid, Viola C. The MIS5 Pietersburg at ‘28’ Bushman Rock Shelter, Limpopo Province, South Africa, PLOS ONE, Volume 13 (2018) no. 10 | Article

[95] Badenhorst, Shaw; van Niekerk, Karen L.; Henshilwood, Christopher S. Rock Hyraxes (Procavia capensis) from Middle Stone Age Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa, African Archaeological Review, Volume 31 (2014) no. 1, pp. 25-43 | Article

[96] Rots, Veerle; Plisson, Hugues Projectiles and the abuse of the use-wear method in a search for impact, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48 (2014), pp. 154-165 | Article

[97] Rots, Veerle; Lentfer, Carol; Schmid, Viola C.; Porraz, Guillaume; Conard, Nicholas J. Pressure flaking to serrate bifacial points for the hunt during the MIS5 at Sibudu Cave (South Africa), PLOS ONE, Volume 12 (2017) no. 4 | Article

[98] Roux, Valentine Technological Innovations and Developmental Trajectories: Social Factors as Evolutionary Forces, Innovation in Cultural Systems, The MIT Press, 2010, pp. 216-234 | Article

[99] Roux, Valentine Technological Innovations and Developmental Trajectories: Social Factors as Evolutionary Forces, Innovation in Cultural Systems, The MIT Press, 2013, pp. 216-234 | Article

[100] Schmid, V. The CA layers of Sibudu Cave (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) in the light of the MSA lithic technologies in MIS 5Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Tuebingen, Germany. (2019)

[101] Schmid, Viola C.; Porraz, Guillaume; Zeidi, Mohsen; Conard, Nicholas J. Blade Technology Characterizing the MIS 5 D-A Layers of Sibudu Cave, South Africa, Lithic Technology, Volume 44 (2019) no. 4, pp. 199-236 | Article

[102] Schmid, V. C.; Conard, N. J.; Parkington, J. E.; Texier, P. J.; Porraz, G. The ‘MSA 1’of Elands Bay Cave (South Africa) in the context of the southern African Early MSA technologies, Southern African Humanities, Volume 29 (2016), pp. 153-201

[103] Schmidt, Patrick How reliable is the visual identification of heat treatment on silcrete? A quantitative verification with a new method, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, Volume 11 (2019) no. 2, pp. 713-726 | Article

[104] Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Slodczyk, Aneta; Bellot-gurlet, Ludovic; Archer, William; Miller, Christopher E. Heat treatment in the South African Middle Stone Age: temperature induced transformations of silcrete and their technological implications, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3519-3531 | Article

[105] Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E.; Miller, Christopher E.; Nickel, Klaus G.; Conard, Nicholas J. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 85 (2015), pp. 22-34 | Article

[106] Schmidt, Patrick; February, Edmund; Bretzke, Knut; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic Tempering-residue on heat-treated silcrete: an experimental perspective and a potential analytical protocol, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 15 (2016), pp. 611-619 | Article

[107] Schmidt, Patrick; Mackay, Alex Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa, PLOS ONE, Volume 11 (2016) no. 2 | Article

[108] Schmidt, Patrick; Lauer, Christoph; Buck, Gerald; Miller, Christopher E.; Nickel, Klaus G. Detailed near-infrared study of the ‘water’-related transformations in silcrete upon heat treatment, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Volume 44 (2017) no. 1, pp. 21-31 | Article

[109] Schmidt, Patrick; Högberg, Anders Heat treatment in the Still Bay - A case study on Hollow Rock Shelter, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 21 (2018), pp. 712-720 | Article

[110] Schmidt, Patrick; Buck, Gerald; Berthold, Christoph; Lauer, Christoph; Nickel, Klaus G. The mechanical properties of heat-treated rocks: a comparison between chert and silcrete, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, Volume 11 (2019) no. 6, pp. 2489-2506 | Article

[111] Schmidt, Patrick; Stynder, Deano; Conard, Nicholas J.; Parkington, John E. When was silcrete heat treatment invented in South Africa?, Palgrave Communications, Volume 6 (2020) no. 1 | Article

[112] Shennan, Stephen Demography and Cultural Innovation: a Model and its Implications for the Emergence of Modern Human Culture, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, Volume 11 (2001) no. 1, pp. 5-16 | Article

[113] SHIPMAN, PAT Applications of Scanning Electron Microscopy to Taphonomic Problems, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 376 (1981) no. 1 The Research, pp. 357-385 | Article

[114] Shipman, Pat; Rose, Jennie Early hominid hunting, butchering, and carcass-processing behaviors: Approaches to the fossil record, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, Volume 2 (1983) no. 1, pp. 57-98 | Article

[115] Simondon, G. L'invention dans les techniques: cours et conférences, Traces écrites, Editions du Seuil, Paris, 2005

[116] Singer, R.; Wymer, J. The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1982

[117] Soriano, Sylvain; Villa, Paola; Delagnes, Anne; Degano, Ilaria; Pollarolo, Luca; Lucejko, Jeannette J.; Henshilwood, Christopher; Wadley, Lyn The Still Bay and Howiesons Poort at Sibudu and Blombos: Understanding Middle Stone Age Technologies, PLOS ONE, Volume 10 (2015) no. 7 | Article

[118] Soulier, Marie-Cécile; Morin, Eugène Cutmark data and their implications for the planning depth of Late Pleistocene societies, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 97 (2016), pp. 37-57 | Article

[119] Steele, Teresa E.; Klein, Richard G. The Middle and Later Stone Age faunal remains from Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Western Cape, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3453-3462 | Article

[120] Stiner, Mary C.; Kuhn, Steven L.; Weiner, Stephen; Bar-Yosef, Ofer Differential Burning, Recrystallization, and Fragmentation of Archaeological Bone, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 22 (1995) no. 2, pp. 223-237 | Article

[121] Stuart-Fox, Martin Rethinking the Evolution of Culture and Cognitive Structure, Journal of Cognition and Culture, Volume 15 (2015) no. 1-2, pp. 109-130 | Article

[122] Texier, P.-J.; Porraz, G.; Parkington, J.; Rigaud, J.-P.; Poggenpoel, C.; Miller, C.; Tribolo, C.; Cartwright, C.; Coudenneau, A.; Klein, R.; Steele, T.; Verna, C. A Howiesons Poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 107 (2010) no. 14, pp. 6180-6185 | Article

[123] Texier, Pierre-Jean; Porraz, Guillaume; Parkington, John; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Poggenpoel, Cedric; Tribolo, Chantal The context, form and significance of the MSA engraved ostrich eggshell collection from Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Western Cape, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3412-3431 | Article

[124] Thiébaut, C.; Claud, É.; Costamagno, S. (Dir.), 2019

[125] Tomasso, Antonin; Porraz, Guillaume Hunter-gatherer mobility and embedded raw-material procurement strategies in the mediterranean upper paleolithic, Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, Volume 25 (2016) no. 3, pp. 164-174 | Article

[126] Tribolo, C.; Mercier, N.; Douville, E.; Joron, J.-L.; Reyss, J.-L.; Rufer, D.; Cantin, N.; Lefrais, Y.; Miller, C.E.; Porraz, G.; Parkington, J.; Rigaud, J.-P.; Texier, P.-J. OSL and TL dating of the Middle Stone Age sequence at Diepkloof Rock Shelter (South Africa): a clarification, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40 (2013) no. 9, pp. 3401-3411 | Article

[127] Turq, Alain; Roebroeks, Wil; Bourguignon, Laurence; Faivre, Jean-Philippe The fragmented character of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 65 (2013) no. 5, pp. 641-655 | Article

[128] Val, Aurore New data on avifaunal remains associated with the Middle Stone Age layers from Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Western Cape, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 26 (2019) | Article

[129] Val, Aurore; Porraz, Guillaume; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Fisher, John W.; Parkington, John Human exploitation of nocturnal felines at Diepkloof Rock Shelter provides further evidence for symbolic behaviours during the Middle Stone Age, Scientific Reports, Volume 10 (2020) no. 1 | Article

[130] Vanhaeren, Marian; d'Errico, Francesco; van Niekerk, Karen L.; Henshilwood, Christopher S.; Erasmus, Rudolph M. Thinking strings: Additional evidence for personal ornament use in the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 64 (2013) no. 6, pp. 500-517 | Article

[131] Vaquero, Manuel; Alonso, Susana; García-Catalán, Sergio; García-Hernández, Angélica; Gómez de Soler, Bruno; Rettig, David; Soto, María Temporal nature and recycling of Upper Paleolithic artifacts: the burned tools from the Molí del Salt site (Vimbodí i Poblet, northeastern Spain), Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 39 (2012) no. 8, pp. 2785-2796 | Article

[132] Villa, Paola; Mahieu, Eric Breakage patterns of human long bones, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 21 (1991) no. 1, pp. 27-48 | Article

[133] Volman, T. P. Early prehistory of southern Africa, Klein, R.G. (Ed.), Southern Africa Prehistory and Paleoenvironments. (1984)

[134] Wadley, Lyn Compound‐Adhesive Manufacture as a Behavioral Proxy for Complex Cognition in the Middle Stone Age, Current Anthropology, Volume 51 (2010) no. S1 | Article

[135] Wadley, Lyn Those marvellous millennia: the Middle Stone Age of Southern Africa, Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, Volume 50 (2015) no. 2, pp. 155-226 | Article

[136] Wadley, Lyn; Sievers, Christine; Bamford, Marion; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Miller, Christopher Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa, Science, Volume 334 (2011) no. 6061, pp. 1388-1391 | Article

[137] Wadley, Lyn; Prinsloo, Linda C. Experimental heat treatment of silcrete implies analogical reasoning in the Middle Stone Age, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 70 (2014), pp. 49-60 | Article

[138] Watts, Ian; Chazan, Michael; Wilkins, Jayne Early Evidence for Brilliant Ritualized Display: Specularite Use in the Northern Cape (South Africa) between ∼500 and ∼300 Ka, Current Anthropology, Volume 57 (2016) no. 3, pp. 287-310 | Article

[139] White, Tim D. Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346, Princeton University Press, 1992 | Article

[140] Wilkins, Jayne; Schoville, Benjamin J.; Brown, Kyle S.; Chazan, Michael Evidence for Early Hafted Hunting Technology, Science, Volume 338 (2012) no. 6109, pp. 942-946 | Article

[141] Wurz, S. J. D. The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River, South Africa. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa (2000)

[142] Wurz, Sarah Variability in the Middle Stone Age Lithic Sequence, 115,000–60,000 Years Ago at Klasies River, South Africa, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 29 (2002) no. 9, pp. 1001-1015 | Article

Cited by document(s). Sources: