Section: Ecology
Topic: Ecology, Population biology

Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior changes

10.24072/pcjournal.320 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e85.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI

It is generally thought that behavioral flexibility, the ability to change behavior when circumstances change, plays an important role in the ability of species to rapidly expand their geographic range. Great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) are a social, polygamous species that is rapidly expanding its geographic range by settling in new areas and habitats. They are behaviorally flexible and highly associated with human-modified environments, eating a variety of human foods in addition to foraging on insects and on the ground for other natural food items. They offer an opportunity to assess the role of behavior change over the course of their expansion. We compared behavior in wild-caught grackles from two populations across their range (an older population in the middle of the northern expansion front: Tempe, Arizona, and a more recent population on the northern edge of the expansion front: Woodland, California) to investigate whether certain behaviors (flexibility, innovativeness, exploration, and persistence) have higher averages and variances in the newer or older population. We found that grackles in the edge population had a higher flexibility variance (measured by reversal learning) and a higher persistence average (they participated in a larger proportion of trials), and that there were no population differences in average levels of flexibility, innovativeness (number of loci solved on a multiaccess box), or exploration (latency to approach a novel environment). Our results elucidated that individuals differentially expressing a particular behavior in an edge population could facilitate the rapid geographic range expansion of great-tailed grackles, and we found no support for the importance of several traits that were hypothesized to be involved in such an expansion. Our findings highlight the value of population studies and of breaking down cognitive concepts into direct measures of individual abilities to better understand how species might adapt to novel circumstances.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.320
Type: Research article
Keywords: behavioral flexibility, innovativeness, exploration, persistence, grackle, cross population, animal cognition, animal behavior, comparative cognition
Logan, Corina 1; McCune, Kelsey 2; LeGrande-Rolls, Christa 1; Marfori, Zara 1; Hubbard, Josephine 3; Lukas, Dieter 1

1 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
2 University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
3 Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, USA
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
@article{10_24072_pcjournal_320,
     author = {Logan, Corina and McCune, Kelsey and LeGrande-Rolls, Christa and Marfori, Zara and Hubbard, Josephine and Lukas, Dieter},
     title = {Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior changes},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e85},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {3},
     year = {2023},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.320},
     language = {en},
     url = {https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.320/}
}
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Logan, Corina
AU  - McCune, Kelsey
AU  - LeGrande-Rolls, Christa
AU  - Marfori, Zara
AU  - Hubbard, Josephine
AU  - Lukas, Dieter
TI  - Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior changes
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2023
VL  - 3
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  - https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.320/
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.320
LA  - en
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_320
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%A Logan, Corina
%A McCune, Kelsey
%A LeGrande-Rolls, Christa
%A Marfori, Zara
%A Hubbard, Josephine
%A Lukas, Dieter
%T Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior changes
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2023
%V 3
%I Peer Community In
%U https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.320/
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.320
%G en
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_320
Logan, Corina; McCune, Kelsey; LeGrande-Rolls, Christa; Marfori, Zara; Hubbard, Josephine; Lukas, Dieter. Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior changes. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e85. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.320. https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.320/

PCI peer reviews and recommendation, and links to data, scripts, code and supplementary information: 10.24072/pci.ecology.100535

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

[1] Audet, J.-N.; Lefebvre, L. What’s flexible in behavioral flexibility?, Behavioral Ecology, Volume 28 (2017) no. 4, pp. 943-947 | DOI

[2] Auersperg, A. M. I.; von Bayern, A. M. P.; Gajdon, G. K.; Huber, L.; Kacelnik, A. Flexibility in Problem Solving and Tool Use of Kea and New Caledonian Crows in a Multi Access Box Paradigm, PLoS ONE, Volume 6 (2011) no. 6 | DOI

[3] Auersperg, A. M.; Szabo, B.; von Bayern, A. M.; Kacelnik, A. Spontaneous innovation in tool manufacture and use in a Goffin’s cockatoo, Current Biology, Volume 22 (2012) no. 21 | DOI

[4] Bates, D.; Maechler, M.; Bolker, B. lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes, 2012 (R package version 0.999375-42)

[5] Bates, D.; Mächler, M.; Bolker, B.; Walker, S. Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4, Journal of Statistical Software, Volume 67 (2015) no. 1 | DOI

[6] Beran, M. J. The comparative science of "self-control": what are we talking about?, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6 (2015) | DOI

[7] Bird, C. D.; Emery, N. J. Insightful problem solving and creative tool modification by captive nontool-using rooks, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 106 (2009) no. 25, pp. 10370-10375 | DOI

[8] BirdLife International Quiscalus mexicanus, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2018 (e.T22724308A132174807)

[9] Blaisdell, A.; Seitz, B.; Rowney, C.; Folsom, M.; MacPherson, M.; Deffner, D.; Logan, C. J. Do the more flexible individuals rely more on causal cognition? Observation versus intervention in causal inference in great-tailed grackles, PsyArXiv Preprints (2020) (version 5 of this preprint has been peer reviewed and recommended by Peer Community In Ecology [https://doi.org/10.24072/pci.ecology.100076]) | DOI

[10] Blaisdell, A.; Seitz, B.; Rowney, C.; Folsom, M.; MacPherson, M.; Deffner, D.; Logan, C. J. Do the more flexible individuals rely more on causal cognition? Observation versus intervention in causal inference in great-tailed grackles, Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021) | DOI

[11] Bolker, B. M. Ecological Models and Data in R, Princeton University Press, 2008 | DOI

[12] Bond, A. B.; Kamil, A. C.; Balda, R. P. Serial reversal learning and the evolution of behavioral flexibility in three species of North American corvids (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Nucifraga columbiana, Aphelocoma californica)., Journal of Comparative Psychology, Volume 121 (2007) no. 4, pp. 372-379 | DOI

[13] Carpenter, B.; Gelman, A.; Hoffman, M. D.; Lee, D.; Goodrich, B.; Betancourt, M.; Brubaker, M.; Guo, J.; Li, P.; Riddell, A. Stan : A Probabilistic Programming Language, Journal of Statistical Software, Volume 76 (2017) no. 1 | DOI

[14] Chapple, D. G.; Simmonds, S. M.; Wong, B. B. Can behavioral and personality traits influence the success of unintentional species introductions?, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 27 (2012) no. 1, pp. 57-64 | DOI

[15] Chow, P. K. Y.; Lea, S. E.; Leaver, L. A. How practice makes perfect: the role of persistence, flexibility and learning in problem-solving efficiency, Animal Behaviour, Volume 112 (2016), pp. 273-283 | DOI

[16] Christensen, A. F. The fifteenth- and twentieth-century colonization of the Basin of Mexico by the Great-tailed Grackle ( Quiscalus mexicanus ), Global Ecology and Biogeography, Volume 9 (2000) no. 5, pp. 415-420 | DOI

[17] Chuang, A.; Riechert, S. E. Personality shifts are inconsistent across two rapid range expansions of a non-native spider, Animal Behaviour, Volume 173 (2021), pp. 67-79 | DOI

[18] Cohen, T. M.; Kumar, R. S.; Nair, M.; Hauber, M. E.; Dor, R. Innovation and decreased neophobia drive invasion success in a widespread avian invader, Animal Behaviour, Volume 163 (2020), pp. 61-72 | DOI

[19] Collias, E. C.; Collias, N. E. The Development of Nest-Building Behavior in a Weaverbird, The Auk, Volume 81 (1964) no. 1, pp. 42-52 | DOI

[20] Coulon, A. Can context changes improve behavioral flexibility? Towards a better understanding of species adaptability to environmental changes, Peer Community In Ecology (2019) | DOI

[21] Eccard, J. A.; Mazza, V.; Holland, C.; Stuart, P. The timid invasion, bioRxiv (2022) | DOI

[22] Eddelbuettel, D.; François, R. Rcpp : Seamless R and C++ Integration, Journal of Statistical Software, Volume 40 (2011) no. 8 | DOI

[23] Fox, R. A.; Ladage, L. D.; Roth, T. C.; Pravosudov, V. V. Behavioural profile predicts dominance status in mountain chickadees, Poecile gambeli, Animal Behaviour, Volume 77 (2009) no. 6, pp. 1441-1448 | DOI

[24] Gabry, J.; Češnovar, R. Cmdstanr: R interface to ’CmdStan’., 2021

[25] Griffin, A. S.; Netto, K.; Peneaux, C. Neophilia, innovation and learning in an urbanized world: a critical evaluation of mixed findings, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16 (2017), pp. 15-22 | DOI

[26] Griffin, A. S.; Diquelou, M. C. Innovative problem solving in birds: a cross-species comparison of two highly successful passerines, Animal Behaviour, Volume 100 (2015), pp. 84-94 | DOI

[27] Griffin, A. S.; Guez, D.; Federspiel, I.; Diquelou, M.; Lermite, F. Invading New Environments: A Mechanistic Framework Linking Motor Diversity and Cognition to Establishment Success, Biological Invasions and Animal Behaviour, Cambridge University Press, 2016, pp. 26-46 | DOI

[28] Griffin, A. S.; Guez, D. Innovation and problem solving: A review of common mechanisms, Behavioural Processes, Volume 109 (2014), pp. 121-134 | DOI

[29] Hadfield, J. MCMCglmm: Markov chain monte carlo methods for generalised linear mixed models. Tutorial for MCMCglmm package in R, 125., 2010

[30] Hadfield, J. MCMCglmm course notes, 2014

[31] Hadfield, J. D. MCMC Methods for Multi-Response Generalized Linear Mixed Models: The MCMCglmm R Package, Journal of Statistical Software, Volume 33 (2010) no. 2 | DOI

[32] Haemig, P. Aztec introduction of the great-tailed grackle in ancient Mesoamerica: Formal defense of the Sahaguntine historical account, NeoBiota, Volume 22 (2014), pp. 59-75 | DOI

[33] Haemig, P. D. Introduction of the Great-Tailed Grackle by Aztec Emperor Auitzotl: Four-Stage Analysis with New Information, Ardeola, Volume 58 (2011) no. 2, pp. 387-397 | DOI

[34] Haemig, P. D. Introduction of the Great-tailed Grackle ( Quiscalus mexicanus ) by Aztec Emperor Auitzotl: Provenance of the historical account, The Auk, Volume 129 (2012) no. 1, pp. 70-75 | DOI

[35] Hartig, F. DHARMa: Residual Diagnostics for Hierarchical (Multi-Level / Mixed) Regression Models, 2019

[36] Hutcheon, J. A.; Chiolero, A.; Hanley, J. A. Random measurement error and regression dilution bias, BMJ, Volume 340 (2010) no. jun23 2 | DOI

[37] Isaksson, E.; Utku Urhan, A.; Brodin, A. High level of self-control ability in a small passerine bird, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Volume 72 (2018) no. 7 | DOI

[38] Johnson, K.; Peer, B. D. Great-tailed Grackle: Quiscalus mexicanus, Birds of North America, Incorporated, 2001

[39] Knolle, F.; Goncalves, R. P.; Davies, E. L.; Duff, A. R.; Morton, J. A. Response-Inhibition During Problem Solving in Sheep (Ovis Aries), International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Volume 32 (2019) | DOI

[40] Kotrschal, A.; Rogell, B.; Bundsen, A.; Svensson, B.; Zajitschek, S.; Brännström, I.; Immler, S.; Maklakov, A. A.; Kolm, N. Artificial Selection on Relative Brain Size in the Guppy Reveals Costs and Benefits of Evolving a Larger Brain, Current Biology, Volume 23 (2013) no. 2, pp. 168-171 | DOI

[41] Künzl, C.; Kaiser, S.; Meier, E.; Sachser, N. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?, Hormones and Behavior, Volume 43 (2003) no. 1, pp. 187-196 | DOI

[42] Landis, J. R.; Koch, G. G. The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data, Biometrics, Volume 33 (1977) no. 1 | DOI

[43] Laughlin, R. E.; Grant, T. L.; Williams, R. W.; Jentsch, J. D. Genetic Dissection of Behavioral Flexibility: Reversal Learning in Mice, Biological Psychiatry, Volume 69 (2011) no. 11, pp. 1109-1116 | DOI

[44] Laumer, I. B.; Call, J.; Bugnyar, T.; Auersperg, A. M. I. Spontaneous innovation of hook-bending and unbending in orangutans (Pongo abelii), Scientific Reports, Volume 8 (2018) no. 1 | DOI

[45] Lefebvre, L.; Whittle, P.; Lascaris, E.; Finkelstein, A. Feeding innovations and forebrain size in birds, Animal Behaviour, Volume 53 (1997) no. 3, pp. 549-560 | DOI

[46] Lissek, S.; Diekamp, B.; Güntürkün, O. Impaired learning of a color reversal task after NMDA receptor blockade in the pigeon (Columbia livia) associative forebrain (Neostriatum Caudolaterale)., Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 116 (2002) no. 4, pp. 523-529 | DOI

[47] Logan, C.; McCune, K.; Lukas, D. Data: Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior changes, Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity, 2023 | DOI

[48] Logan, C. J.; MacPherson, M.; Rowney, C.; Bergeron, L.; Seitz, B.; Blaisdell, A.; Folsom, M.; Johnson-Ulrich, Z.; McCune, K. B. Is behavioral flexibility manipulatable and, if so, does it improve flexibility and problem solving in a new context?, In principle acceptance by PCI Ecology of the version on 26 Mar 2019. https://doi.org/10.24072/pci.ecology.100019 (2019)

[49] Logan, C.; McCune, K.; MacPherson, M.; Johnson-Ulrich, Z.; Rowney, C.; Seitz, B.; Blaisdell, A.; Deffner, D.; Wascher, C. Are the more flexible great-tailed grackles also better at behavioral inhibition?, PsyArXiv (2020) | DOI

[50] Logan, C.; Shaw, R.; Lukas, D.; McCune, K. How to succeed in human modified environments (2022) (In principle acceptance by PCI Registered Report of the version on 8 Sep 2022. https://rr.peercommunityin.org/articles/rec?id=200) | DOI

[51] Logan, C.; Avin, S.; Boogert, N.; Buskell, A.; Cross, F.; Currie, A.; Jelbert, S.; Lukas, D.; Mares, R.; Navarrete, A.; Shigeno, S.; Montgomery SH Beyond brain size, bioRxiv (2017) | DOI

[52] Logan, C.; McCune, K.; Chen, N.; Lukas, D. Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior and habitat changes, In principle acceptance by PCI Ecology of the version on 6 Oct 2020. https://doi.org/10.24072/pci.ecology.100062 (2020)

[53] Logan, C.; Blaisdell, A.; Johnson-Ulrich, Z.; Lukas, D.; MacPherson, M.; Seitz, B.; Sevchik, A.; McCune, K. Data: Behavioral flexibility is manipulable and it improves flexibility and problem solving in a new context, Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity, 2023 | DOI

[54] Logan, C.; Lukas, D.; Blaisdell, A.; Johnson-Ulrich, Z.; MacPherson, M.; Seitz, B.; Sevchik, A.; McCune, K. Behavioral flexibility is manipulable and it improves flexibility and innovativeness in a new context, Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023) | DOI

[55] Logan, C. J. Behavioral flexibility in an invasive bird is independent of other behaviors, PeerJ, Volume 4 (2016) | DOI

[56] Logan, C. J. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird, PeerJ, Volume 4 (2016) | DOI

[57] Lukas, D.; McCune, K.; Blaisdell, A.; Johnson-Ulrich, Z.; MacPherson, M.; Seitz, B.; Sevchik, A.; Logan, C. Behavioral flexibility is manipulatable and it improves flexibility and problem solving in a new context: post-hoc analyses of the components of behavioral flexibility, EcoEvoRxiv (2022) | DOI

[58] MacLean, E. L.; Hare, B.; Nunn, C. L.; Addessi, E.; Amici, F.; Anderson, R. C.; Aureli, F.; Baker, J. M.; Bania, A. E.; Barnard, A. M.; Boogert, N. J.; Brannon, E. M.; Bray, E. E.; Bray, J.; Brent, L. J. N.; Burkart, J. M.; Call, J.; Cantlon, J. F.; Cheke, L. G.; Clayton, N. S.; Delgado, M. M.; DiVincenti, L. J.; Fujita, K.; Herrmann, E.; Hiramatsu, C.; Jacobs, L. F.; Jordan, K. E.; Laude, J. R.; Leimgruber, K. L.; Messer, E. J. E.; de A. Moura, A. C.; Ostojić, L.; Picard, A.; Platt, M. L.; Plotnik, J. M.; Range, F.; Reader, S. M.; Reddy, R. B.; Sandel, A. A.; Santos, L. R.; Schumann, K.; Seed, A. M.; Sewall, K. B.; Shaw, R. C.; Slocombe, K. E.; Su, Y.; Takimoto, A.; Tan, J.; Tao, R.; van Schaik, C. P.; Virányi, Z.; Visalberghi, E.; Wade, J. C.; Watanabe, A.; Widness, J.; Young, J. K.; Zentall, T. R.; Zhao, Y. The evolution of self-control, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 111 (2014) no. 20 | DOI

[59] Manrique, H. M.; Call, J. Spontaneous use of tools as straws in great apes, Animal Cognition, Volume 14 (2010) no. 2, pp. 213-226 | DOI

[60] McCune, K.; Blaisdell, A.; Johnson-Ulrich, Z.; Lukas, D.; MacPherson, M.; Seitz, B.; Sevchik, A.; Logan, C. Repeatability of performance within and across contexts measuring 1 behavioral flexibility, EcoEvoRxiv (2022) | DOI

[61] McCune, K.; MacPherson, M.; Rowney, C.; Bergeron, L.; Folsom, M.; Logan, C. Is behavioral flexibility linked with exploration, but not boldness, persistence, or motor diversity?, In principle acceptance by PCI Ecology of the version on 27 Mar 2019. https://doi.org/10.24072/pci.ecology.100020 (2019)

[62] McCune, K. B. Cognition gone wild: Testing the Social Intelligence Hypothesis in wild jays, University of Washington (2018)

[63] McCune, K. B.; Jablonski, P.; Lee, S.-i.; Ha, R. R. Captive jays exhibit reduced problem-solving performance compared to wild conspecifics, Royal Society Open Science, Volume 6 (2019) no. 1 | DOI

[64] McElreath, R. Statistical Rethinking, Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2020 | DOI

[65] McElreath, R. rethinking: Statistical Rethinking book package, 2020

[66] Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Lorentzen, S.; Schlicht, E.; Schneider, J.; Werner, F. Spatial Neophilia and Spatial Neophobia in Resident and Migratory Warblers ( Sylvia ), Ethology, Volume 115 (2009) no. 5, pp. 482-492 | DOI

[67] Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Winkler, H.; Leisler, B. The Significance of Ecological Factors for Exploration and Neophobia in Parrots, Ethology, Volume 108 (2002) no. 3, pp. 249-272 | DOI

[68] Mikhalevich, I.; Powell, R.; Logan, C. Is behavioural flexibility evidence of cognitive complexity? How evolution can inform comparative cognition, Interface Focus, Volume 7 (2017) no. 3 | DOI

[69] Morand-Ferron, J.; Cole, E. F.; Rawles, J. E.; Quinn, J. L. Who are the innovators? A field experiment with 2 passerine species, Behavioral Ecology, Volume 22 (2011) no. 6, pp. 1241-1248 | DOI

[70] Morand-Ferron, J.; Reichert, M. S.; Quinn, J. L. Cognitive flexibility in the wild: Individual differences in reversal learning are explained primarily by proactive interference, not by sampling strategies, in two passerine bird species, Learning & Behavior, Volume 50 (2022) no. 1, pp. 153-166 | DOI

[71] R Core Team R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2023

[72] Revelle, W. psych: Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 2017

[73] Rodrigo, A.; Ávila-Chauvet, L.; Buriticá, J. Daily Patterns of Foraging and Aggressive Behaviors in Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscallus mexicanus) at an Urban Patch with Availability or Absence of Resources, bioRxiv (2021) | DOI

[74] Rutz, C.; Klump, B. C.; Komarczyk, L.; Leighton, R.; Kramer, J.; Wischnewski, S.; Sugasawa, S.; Morrissey, M. B.; James, R.; St Clair, J. J. H.; Switzer, R. A.; Masuda, B. M. Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow, Nature, Volume 537 (2016) no. 7620, pp. 403-407 | DOI

[75] Réale, D.; Reader, S. M.; Sol, D.; McDougall, P. T.; Dingemanse, N. J. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution, Biological Reviews, Volume 82 (2007) no. 2, pp. 291-318 | DOI

[76] Sarkar, D. Lattice: Multivariate Data Visualization with R, Springer, New York, 2008

[77] Sebastián González, E. Behavioral changes in the rapid geographic expansion of the great-tailed grackle, Peer Community in Ecology (2023) | DOI

[78] Sebastián-González, E. The role of behavior and habitat availability on species geographic expansion, Peer Community In Ecology (2020) | DOI

[79] Sebastián-González, E. The role of behavior and habitat availability on species geographic expansion, Peer Community In Ecology (2020) | DOI

[80] Seitz, B. M.; McCune, K.; MacPherson, M.; Bergeron, L.; Blaisdell, A. P.; Logan, C. J. Using touchscreen equipped operant chambers to study animal cognition. Benefits, limitations, and advice, PLOS ONE, Volume 16 (2021) no. 2 | DOI

[81] Selander, R. K.; Giller, D. R. Analysis of Sympatry of Great-Tailed and Boat-Tailed Grackles, The Condor, Volume 63 (1961) no. 1, pp. 29-86 | DOI

[82] Sol, D.; Duncan, R. P.; Blackburn, T. M.; Cassey, P.; Lefebvre, L. Big brains, enhanced cognition, and response of birds to novel environments, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 102 (2005) no. 15, pp. 5460-5465 | DOI

[83] Sol, D.; Lefebvre, L. Behavioural flexibility predicts invasion success in birds introduced to New Zealand, Oikos, Volume 90 (2003) no. 3, pp. 599-605 | DOI

[84] Sol, D.; Székely, T.; Liker, A.; Lefebvre, L. Big-brained birds survive better in nature, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Volume 274 (2007) no. 1611, pp. 763-769 | DOI

[85] Sol, D.; Timmermans, S.; Lefebvre, L. Behavioural flexibility and invasion success in birds, Animal Behaviour, Volume 63 (2002) no. 3, pp. 495-502 | DOI

[86] Stan Development Team RStan: the R interface to Stan, http://mc-stan.org/, 2020

[87] Stoffel, M. A.; Nakagawa, S.; Schielzeth, H. rptR: repeatability estimation and variance decomposition by generalized linear mixed‐effects models, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 8 (2017) no. 11, pp. 1639-1644 | DOI

[88] Storks, L.; Leal, M. Thinking outside the box: problem-solving in free-living lizards, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Volume 74 (2020) no. 6 | DOI

[89] Summers, J.; Lukas, D.; Logan, C. J.; Chen, N. The role of climate change and niche shifts in divergent range dynamics of a sister-species pair, Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023) | DOI

[90] Szabo, B.; Damas-Moreira, I.; Whiting, M. J. Can Cognitive Ability Give Invasive Species the Means to Succeed? A Review of the Evidence, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 8 (2020) | DOI

[91] Taylor, A. H.; Hunt, G. R.; Holzhaider, J. C.; Gray, R. D. Spontaneous Metatool Use by New Caledonian Crows, Current Biology, Volume 17 (2007) no. 17, pp. 1504-1507 | DOI

[92] Tebbich, S.; Sterelny, K.; Teschke, I. The tale of the finch: adaptive radiation and behavioural flexibility, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Volume 365 (2010) no. 1543, pp. 1099-1109 | DOI

[93] Troisi, C. A.; Cooke, A. C.; Davidson, G. L.; de la Hera, I.; Reichert, M. S.; Quinn, J. L. No Evidence for Cross-Contextual Consistency in Spatial Cognition or Behavioral Flexibility in a Passerine, Animal Behavior and Cognition, Volume 8 (2021) no. 3, pp. 446-461 | DOI

[94] Vehtari, A.; Gelman, A.; Simpson, D.; Carpenter, B.; Bürkner, P.-C. Rank-Normalization, Folding, and Localization: An Improved Rˆ for Assessing Convergence of MCMC (with Discussion), Bayesian Analysis, Volume 16 (2021) no. 2 | DOI

[95] Wehtje, W. The range expansion of the great-tailed grackle ( Quiscalus mexicanus Gmelin) in North America since 1880, Journal of Biogeography, Volume 30 (2003) no. 10, pp. 1593-1607 | DOI

[96] Wehtje, W. The great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus Gmelin) in the Western United States of America: Range expansion and secondary contact between subspecies, University of California, Riverside, 2004

[97] Wickham, H.; François, R.; Henry, L.; Müller, K. dplyr: A Grammar of Data Manipulation, 2021

[98] Wickham, H.; Vaughan, D.; Girlich, M. tidyr: Tidy Messy Data, 2023

[99] Wright, T.; Eberhard, J.; Hobson, E.; Avery, M.; Russello, M. Behavioral flexibility and species invasions: the adaptive flexibility hypothesis, Ethology Ecology & Evolution, Volume 22 (2010) no. 4, pp. 393-404 | DOI

[100] Xie, Y. Dynamic Documents with R and knitr, Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2017 | DOI

[101] Xie, Y. knitr: A Comprehensive Tool for Reproducible Research in R, Implementing Reproducible Research, Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2018, pp. 3-31 | DOI

[102] Xie, Y. knitr: A general-purpose package for dynamic report generation in R, R package version, Volume 1 (2013) no. 7

[103] Xie, Y. formatR: Format R Code Automatically, 2023

[104] Zhu, H. kableExtra: Construct Complex Table with 'kable' and Pipe Syntax, 2021

Cited by Sources: