Section: Infections
Topic: Systems biology, Geography, Medical sciences

Physiological and behavioural resistance of malaria vectors in rural West-Africa: a data mining study to address their fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity, drivers, and predictability

10.24072/pcjournal.367 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 4 (2024), article no. e11.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI

Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation of malaria mosquitoes affect the efficacy of long-lasting insecticide nets - currently the main tool for malaria vector control. To develop and deploy complementary, efficient and cost-effective control interventions, a good understanding of the drivers of these physiological and behavioural traits is needed. In this data-mining exercise, we modelled a set of indicators of physiological resistance to insecticide (prevalence of three target-site mutations) and behavioural resistance phenotypes (early- and late-biting, exophagy) of anopheles mosquitoes in two rural areas of West-Africa, located in Burkina Faso and Cote d'Ivoire. To this aim, we used mosquito field collections along with heterogeneous, multi-source and multi-scale environmental data. The objectives were i) to assess the small-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity of physiological resistance to insecticide and behavioural resistance phenotypes, ii) to better understand their drivers, and iii) to assess their spatio-temporal predictability, at scales that are consistent with operational action. The explanatory variables covered a wide range of potential environmental determinants of vector resistance to insecticide or behavioural resistance phenotypes: vector control, human availability and nocturnal behaviour, macro and micro-climatic conditions, landscape, etc. The resulting models revealed many statistically significant associations, although their predictive powers were overall weak. We interpreted and discussed these associations in light of several topics of interest, such as: respective contribution of public health and agriculture in the selection of physiological resistances, biological costs associated with physiological resistances, biological mechanisms underlying biting behaviour, and impact of micro-climatic conditions on the time or place of biting. To our knowledge, our work is the first modeling insecticide resistance and feeding behaviour of malaria vectors at such fine spatial scale with such a large dataset of both mosquito and environmental data.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.367
Type: Research article
Taconet, Paul 1; Soma, Dieudonné Diloma 2; Zogo, Barnabas 3; Mouline, Karine 1; Simard, Frédéric 1; Koffi, Alphonsine Amanan 3; Dabiré, Roch Kounbobr 2; Pennetier, Cédric 1, 2; Moiroux, Nicolas 1

1 MIVEGEC, IRD, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France
2 Institut de Recherche en Sciences de La Santé (IRSS), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
3 Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Bouaké, Cote d’Ivoire
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
     author = {Taconet, Paul and Soma, Dieudonn\'e Diloma and Zogo, Barnabas and Mouline, Karine and Simard, Fr\'ed\'eric and Koffi, Alphonsine Amanan and Dabir\'e, Roch Kounbobr and Pennetier, C\'edric and Moiroux, Nicolas},
     title = {Physiological and behavioural resistance of malaria vectors in rural {West-Africa:} a data mining study to address their fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity, drivers, and predictability},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e11},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {4},
     year = {2024},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.367},
     language = {en},
     url = {}
AU  - Taconet, Paul
AU  - Soma, Dieudonné Diloma
AU  - Zogo, Barnabas
AU  - Mouline, Karine
AU  - Simard, Frédéric
AU  - Koffi, Alphonsine Amanan
AU  - Dabiré, Roch Kounbobr
AU  - Pennetier, Cédric
AU  - Moiroux, Nicolas
TI  - Physiological and behavioural resistance of malaria vectors in rural West-Africa: a data mining study to address their fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity, drivers, and predictability
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2024
VL  - 4
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  -
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.367
LA  - en
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_367
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%A Taconet, Paul
%A Soma, Dieudonné Diloma
%A Zogo, Barnabas
%A Mouline, Karine
%A Simard, Frédéric
%A Koffi, Alphonsine Amanan
%A Dabiré, Roch Kounbobr
%A Pennetier, Cédric
%A Moiroux, Nicolas
%T Physiological and behavioural resistance of malaria vectors in rural West-Africa: a data mining study to address their fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity, drivers, and predictability
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2024
%V 4
%I Peer Community In
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.367
%G en
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_367
Taconet, Paul; Soma, Dieudonné Diloma; Zogo, Barnabas; Mouline, Karine; Simard, Frédéric; Koffi, Alphonsine Amanan; Dabiré, Roch Kounbobr; Pennetier, Cédric; Moiroux, Nicolas. Physiological and behavioural resistance of malaria vectors in rural West-Africa: a data mining study to address their fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity, drivers, and predictability. Peer Community Journal, Volume 4 (2024), article  no. e11. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.367.

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.infections.100157

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

[1] Alout, H.; Dabiré, R. K.; Djogbénou, L. S.; Abate, L.; Corbel, V.; Chandre, F.; Cohuet, A. Interactive cost of Plasmodium infection and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, Scientific Reports, Volume 6 (2016) no. 1 | DOI

[2] Assogba, B. S.; Djogbénou, L. S.; Saizonou, J.; Milesi, P.; Djossou, L.; Djegbe, I.; Oumbouke, W. A.; Chandre, F.; Baba-Moussa, L.; Weill, M.; Makoutodé, M. Phenotypic effects of concomitant insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1 R ) and knockdown resistance (kdr R ) in Anopheles gambiae: a hindrance for insecticide resistance management for malaria vector control, Parasites & Vectors, Volume 7 (2014) no. 1 | DOI

[3] Assouho, K. F.; Adja, A. M.; Guindo-Coulibaly, N.; Tia, E.; Kouadio, A. M. N.; Zoh, D. D.; Koné, M.; Kessé, N.; Koffi, B.; Sagna, A. B.; Poinsignon, A.; Yapi, A. Vectorial Transmission of Malaria in Major Districts of Côte d’Ivoire, Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 57 (2020) no. 3, pp. 908-914 | DOI

[4] Auguie, B. gridExtra: Miscellaneous Functions for "Grid" Graphics, R package, 2017 (

[5] Bartoń, K. MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference, R package version 1.43.17 , 2020 (

[6] Berticat, C.; Bonnet, J.; Duchon, S.; Agnew, P.; Weill, M.; Corbel, V. Costs and benefits of multiple resistance to insecticides for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, BMC Evolutionary Biology, Volume 8 (2008) no. 1, p. 104 | DOI

[7] Bhatt, S.; Weiss, D. J.; Cameron, E.; Bisanzio, D.; Mappin, B.; Dalrymple, U.; Battle, K. E.; Moyes, C. L.; Henry, A.; Eckhoff, P. A.; Wenger, E. A.; Briët, O.; Penny, M. A.; Smith, T. A.; Bennett, A.; Yukich, J.; Eisele, T. P.; Griffin, J. T.; Fergus, C. A.; Lynch, M.; Lindgren, F.; Cohen, J. M.; Murray, C. L. J.; Smith, D. L.; Hay, S. I.; Cibulskis, R. E.; Gething, P. W. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015, Nature, Volume 526 (2015) no. 7572, pp. 207-211 | DOI

[8] Bolker, B.; Robinson, D. broom.mixed: Tidying Methods for Mixed Models, R package version 0.2.6, 2020 (

[9] Breiman, L. Random forests, Machine Learning, Volume 45 (2001) no. 1, pp. 5-32 | DOI

[10] Breiman, L. Statistical Modeling: The Two Cultures (with comments and a rejoinder by the author), Statistical Science, Volume 16 (2001) no. 3 | DOI

[11] Brooks, M.; Kristensen, K.; Benthem, K.; Magnusson, A.; Berg, C.; Nielsen, A.; Skaug, H.; Mächler, M.; Bolker, B. glmmTMB Balances Speed and Flexibility Among Packages for Zero-inflated Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling, The R Journal, Volume 9 (2017) no. 2 | DOI

[12] Carnevale, P.; Robert, V.; Manguin, S.; Corbel, V.; Fontenille, D.; Garros, C.; Rogier, C.; Roux, J. Les anophèles : biologie, transmission du Plasmodium et lutte antivectorielle, Didactiques, IRD, 2009 | DOI

[13] Carrasco, D.; Lefèvre, T.; Moiroux, N.; Pennetier, C.; Chandre, F.; Cohuet, A. Behavioural adaptations of mosquito vectors to insecticide control, Current Opinion in Insect Science, Volume 34 (2019), pp. 48-54 | DOI

[14] Chandre, F.; Darriet, F.; Manguin, S.; Brengues, C.; Carnevale, P.; Guillet, P. Pyrethroid cross resistance spectrum among populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d'Ivoire, Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, Volume 15 (1999), pp. 53-59 (

[15] Chicco, D. Ten quick tips for machine learning in computational biology, BioData Mining, Volume 10 (2017) no. 1 | DOI

[16] Coffinet, T.; Rogier, C.; Pages, F. [Evaluation of the anopheline mosquito aggressivity and of malaria transmission risk: methods used in French Army]., Medecine tropicale : revue du Corps de sante colonial, Volume 69 (2009) no. 2, pp. 109-122

[17] Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Routledge, 2013 | DOI

[18] Corbel, V.; N’Guessan, R. Distribution, Mechanisms, Impact and Management of Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors: A Pragmatic Review, Anopheles mosquitoes - New insights into malaria vectors, InTech, 2013 | DOI

[19] Davidson, G. Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles Sundaicus, Nature, Volume 180 (1957) no. 4598, pp. 1333-1335 | DOI

[20] De Meeûs, T. Large and complete datasets, and modelling reveal the major determinants of physiological and behavioral insecticide resistance of malaria vectors, Peer Community In Infections (2024), p. 100157 | DOI

[21] Diop, M. M.; Chandre, F.; Rossignol, M.; Porciani, A.; Chateau, M.; Moiroux, N.; Pennetier, C. Sub-lethal insecticide exposure affects host biting efficiency of Kdr-resistant Anopheles gambiae, Peer Community Journal, Volume 1 (2021), p. e28 | DOI

[22] Diop, M. M.; Moiroux, N.; Chandre, F.; Martin-Herrou, H.; Milesi, P.; Boussari, O.; Porciani, A.; Duchon, S.; Labbé, P.; Pennetier, C. Behavioral Cost & Overdominance in Anopheles gambiae, PLOS ONE, Volume 10 (2015) no. 4, p. e0121755 | DOI

[23] Djènontin, A.; Alfa, D.; Bouraima, A.; Soares, C.; Dahounto, A.; Cornélie, S.; Egrot, M.; Damien, G.; Remoué, F.; Sagna, A. B.; Moiroux, N.; Pennetier, C. Durability of the deltamethrin-treated polypropylene long-lasting net LifeNet® in a pyrethroid resistance area in south western Benin: A phase III trial, PLOS ONE, Volume 18 (2023) no. 9, p. e0291755 | DOI

[24] Djènontin, A.; Bouraima, A.; Soares, C.; Egbinola, S.; Cottrell, G. Human biting rhythm of Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902 (Diptera: Culicidae) and sleeping behaviour of pregnant women in a lagoon area in Southern Benin, BMC Research Notes, Volume 14 (2021) no. 1, p. 200 | DOI

[25] Durnez, L.; Coosemans, M. Residual Transmission of Malaria: An Old Issue for New Approaches, Anopheles mosquitoes - New insights into malaria vectors, InTech, 2013 | DOI

[26] Foster, S. P.; Young, S.; Williamson, M. S.; Duce, I.; Denholm, I.; Devine, G. J. Analogous pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance genotypes in peach–potato aphids and houseflies, Heredity, Volume 91 (2003) no. 2, pp. 98-106 | DOI

[27] Friedman, J. H.; Popescu, B. E. Predictive learning via rule ensembles, The Annals of Applied Statistics, Volume 2 (2008) no. 3, pp. 916-954 | DOI

[28] Gatton, M. L.; Chitnis, N.; Churcher, T.; Donnelly, M. J.; Ghani, A. C.; Godfray, H. C. J.; Gould, F.; Hastings, I.; Marshall, J.; Ranson, H.; Rowland, M.; Shaman, J.; Lindsay, S. W. The Importance Of Mosquito Behavioural Adaptations To Malaria Control In Africa, Evolution, Volume 67 (2013) no. 4, pp. 1218-1230 | DOI

[29] Govella, N. J.; Johnson, P. C. D.; Killeen, G. F.; Ferguson, H. M. Heritability of biting time behaviours in the major African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, Malaria Journal, Volume 22 (2023) no. 1 | DOI

[30] Greenwell, B. M. pdp: An R Package for Constructing Partial Dependence Plots, The R Journal, Volume 9 (2017) no. 1, pp. 421-436 | DOI

[31] Hay, G. J.; Castilla, G. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA): A new name for a new discipline, Object-Based Image Analysis, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008, pp. 75-89 | DOI

[32] Hemingway, J.; Ranson, H.; Magill, A.; Kolaczinski, J.; Fornadel, C.; Gimnig, J.; Coetzee, M.; Simard, F.; Roch, D. K.; Hinzoumbe, C. K.; Pickett, J.; Schellenberg, D.; Gething, P.; Hoppé, M.; Hamon, N. Averting a malaria disaster: will insecticide resistance derail malaria control?, The Lancet, Volume 387 (2016) no. 10029, pp. 1785-1788 | DOI

[33] Hersbach, H.; Bell, B.; Berrisford, P.; Hirahara, S.; Horányi, A.; Muñoz‐Sabater, J.; Nicolas, J.; Peubey, C.; Radu, R.; Schepers, D.; Simmons, A.; Soci, C.; Abdalla, S.; Abellan, X.; Balsamo, G.; Bechtold, P.; Biavati, G.; Bidlot, J.; Bonavita, M.; Chiara, G.; Dahlgren, P.; Dee, D.; Diamantakis, M.; Dragani, R.; Flemming, J.; Forbes, R.; Fuentes, M.; Geer, A.; Haimberger, L.; Healy, S.; Hogan, R. J.; Hólm, E.; Janisková, M.; Keeley, S.; Laloyaux, P.; Lopez, P.; Lupu, C.; Radnoti, G.; Rosnay, P.; Rozum, I.; Vamborg, F.; Villaume, S.; Thépaut, J. The ERA5 global reanalysis, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Volume 146 (2020) no. 730, pp. 1999-2049 | DOI

[34] Hien, A. S.; Soma, D. D.; Hema, O.; Bayili, B.; Namountougou, M.; Gnankiné, O.; Baldet, T.; Diabaté, A.; Dabiré, K. R. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa, PLOS ONE, Volume 12 (2017) no. 3, p. e0173098 | DOI

[35] Holstein, M. Biologie d'Anopheles gambiae : recherches en Afrique-Occidentale Française, Monographies - OMS, OMS, Genève, 1952 no. 9 (

[36] Huffman, G.; Stocker, E.; Bolvin, D.; Nelkin, E.; Tan, J. GPM IMERG Final Precipitation L3 1 day 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree V06. , NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center, 2019 | DOI

[37] Huffman, G.; Stocker, E.; Bolvin, D.; Nelkin, E.; Tan, J. GPM IMERG Final Precipitation L3 Half Hourly 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree V06. , NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center, 2019 | DOI

[38] Karpatne, A.; Atluri, G.; Faghmous, J. H.; Steinbach, M.; Banerjee, A.; Ganguly, A.; Shekhar, S.; Samatova, N.; Kumar, V. Theory-Guided Data Science: A New Paradigm for Scientific Discovery from Data, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Volume 29 (2017) no. 10, pp. 2318-2331 | DOI

[39] Kayedi, M. H.; Khamisabadi, K.; Haghdoost, A. A.; Kayedi, Z.; Fallahi, S.; Abdali, N. Short and long term evaluation of the efficiency of permanet® 2.0 bed net against environmental factors and washing using bioassay tests, Revista Do Instituto De Medicina Tropical De São Paulo, Volume 59 (2017) no. 0 | DOI

[40] Kessler, S.; Guerin, P. M. Responses of Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to cool and humid refugium conditions, Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 33 (2008) no. 1, pp. 145-149 | DOI

[41] Kilian, A.; Byamukama, W.; Pigeon, O.; Atieli, F.; Duchon, S.; Phan, C. Long-term field performance of a polyester-based long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net in rural uganda, Malaria Journal, Volume 7 (2008) no. 1 | DOI

[42] Killeen, G. F. Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission, Malaria Journal, Volume 13 (2014) no. 1, p. 330 | DOI

[43] Kirby, M.; Lindsay, S. Responses of adult mosquitoes of two sibling species, Anopheles arabiensis and A. gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae), to high temperatures, Bulletin of Entomological Research, Volume 94 (2004) no. 5, pp. 441-448 | DOI

[44] Kliot, A.; Ghanim, M. Fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance: Fitness cost and insecticide resistance, Pest Management Science, Volume 68 (2012) no. 11, pp. 1431-1437 | DOI

[45] Kreppel, K. S.; Viana, M.; Main, B. J.; Johnson, P. C. D.; Govella, N. J.; Lee, Y.; Maliti, D.; Meza, F. C.; Lanzaro, G. C.; Ferguson, H. M. Emergence of behavioural avoidance strategies of malaria vectors in areas of high LLIN coverage in Tanzania, Scientific Reports, Volume 10 (2020) no. 1 | DOI

[46] Kuhn, M.; Wing, J.; Weston, S.; Williams, A.; Keefer, C.; Engelhardt, A.; Cooper, T.; Mayer, Z.; Kenkel, B.; R. Core Team; Benesty, M.; Lescarbeau, R.; Ziem, A.; Scrucca, L.; Tang, Y.; Candan, C.; Hunt, T. caret: Classification and Regression Training, R package, 2018 (

[47] Labbé, P.; David, J.-P.; Alout, H.; Milesi, P.; Djogbénou, L.; Pasteur, N.; Weill, M. Evolution of Resistance to Insecticide in Disease Vectors, Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Elsevier, 2017, pp. 313-339 | DOI

[48] Lockwood, J. A.; Sparks, T. C.; Story, R. N. Evolution of Insect Resistance to Insecticides: A Reevaluation of the Roles of Physiology and Behavior, Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 30 (1984) no. 4, pp. 41-51 | DOI

[49] Long, J. A. jtools: Analysis and Presentation of Social Scientific Data, R package version 2.1.0, 2020 (

[50] MERSI; CNRST; IRSS Utilisation des pesticides agricoles dans trois régions à l’ouest du Burkina Faso et évaluation de leur impact sur la santé et l’environnement: cas des Régions de la Boucle du Mouhoun, des Cascades et des Hauts-Bassins (2016) (

[51] Main, B. J.; Lee, Y.; Ferguson, H. M.; Kreppel, K. S.; Kihonda, A.; Govella, N. J.; Collier, T. C.; Cornel, A. J.; Eskin, E.; Kang, E. Y.; Nieman, C. C.; Weakley, A. M.; Lanzaro, G. C. The Genetic Basis of Host Preference and Resting Behavior in the Major African Malaria Vector, Anopheles arabiensis, PLOS Genetics, Volume 12 (2016) no. 9, p. e1006303 | DOI

[52] Martinez-Torres, D.; Chandre, F.; Williamson, M. S.; Darriet, F.; Berge, J. B.; Devonshire, A. L.; Guillet, P.; Pasteur, N.; Pauron, D. Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s., Insect Molecular Biology, Volume 7 (1998) no. 2, pp. 179-184 | DOI

[53] Medjigbodo, A. A.; Sonounameto, E. G.; Djihinto, O. Y.; Abbey, E.; Salavi, E. B.; Djossou, L.; Badolo, A.; Djogbénou, L. S. Interplay Between Oxytetracycline and the Homozygote kdr (L1014F) Resistance Genotype on Fecundity in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes, Journal of Insect Science, Volume 21 (2021) no. 4 | DOI

[54] Medjigbodo, A. A.; Djogbénou, L. S.; Djihinto, O. Y.; Akoton, R. B.; Abbey, E.; Kakossou, R. M.; Sonounameto, E. G.; Salavi, E. B. J.; Djossou, L.; Badolo, A. Putative pleiotropic effects of the knockdown resistance (L1014F) allele on the life-history traits of Anopheles gambiae, Malaria Journal, Volume 20 (2021) no. 1 | DOI

[55] Moiroux, N. Modélisation du risque d'exposition aux moustiques vecteurs de Plasmodium spp. dans un contexte de lutte anti-vectorielle., Ecologie, Environnement, Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc (2012) (

[56] Moiroux, N.; Bio-Bangana, A. S.; Djènontin, A.; Chandre, F.; Corbel, V.; Guis, H. Modelling the risk of being bitten by malaria vectors in a vector control area in southern Benin, west Africa, Parasites & Vectors, Volume 6 (2013) no. 1, p. 71 | DOI

[57] Moiroux, N.; Djènontin, A.; Bio-Bangana, A. S.; Chandre, F.; Corbel, V.; Guis, H. Spatio-temporal analysis of abundances of three malaria vector species in southern Benin using zero-truncated models, Parasites & Vectors, Volume 7 (2014) no. 1, p. 103 | DOI

[58] Moiroux, N.; Gomez, M. B.; Pennetier, C.; Elanga, E.; Djènontin, A.; Chandre, F.; Djègbé, I.; Guis, H.; Corbel, V. Changes in Anopheles funestus biting behavior following universal coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Benin., The Journal of infectious diseases, Volume 206 (2012) no. 10, pp. 1622-1629 | DOI

[59] Moiroux, N.; Pennetier, C.; Dabiré, R. K.; Koffi, A. REACT project (Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire, 2016-2018): study sites information, DataSud, V1, 2023 | DOI

[60] Moyes, C. L.; Athinya, D. K.; Seethaler, T.; Battle, K. E.; Sinka, M.; Hadi, M. P.; Hemingway, J.; Coleman, M.; Hancock, P. A. Evaluating insecticide resistance across African districts to aid malaria control decisions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 117 (2020) no. 36, pp. 22042-22050 | DOI

[61] Müller, T.; Küll, C. L.; Müller, C. Effects of larval versus adult density conditions on reproduction and behavior of a leaf beetle, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Volume 70 (2016) no. 12, pp. 2081-2091 | DOI

[62] Nakagawa, S.; Schielzeth, H. A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed‐effects models, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 4 (2012) no. 2, pp. 133-142 | DOI

[63] Ngowo, H.; Kaindoa, E.; Matthiopoulos, J.; Ferguson, H.; Okumu, F. Variations in household microclimate affect outdoor-biting behaviour of malaria vectors., Wellcome Open Research, Volume 2 (2017), p. 102-102 | DOI

[64] Njan Nloga, A.; Robert, V.; Toto, J.; Carnevale, P. La durée du cycle gonotrophique d'Anopheles moucheti varie de trois à quatre jours en fonction de la proximité par rapport aux gites de ponte, Bulletin de Liaison et de Documentation - OCEAC, Volume 26 (1993), pp. 69-72

[65] Ouédraogo, M.; Toé, A. M.; Ouédraogo, T. Z.; Guissou, P. I. Pesticides in Burkina Faso: Overview of the Situation in a Sahelian African Country, Pesticides in the Modern World - Pesticides Use and Management, InTech, 2011 | DOI

[66] PNLP Directives nationales pour la prise en charge du paludisme dans les formations sanitaires du Burkina Faso. Ministère de la Santé/Burkina Faso., 2014

[67] PNLP Programme National de Lutte Contre le Paludisme en Côte d’Ivoire. 2014. Plan stratégique national de lutte contre le paludisme 2012–2015 (période replanifiée 2014–2017). Approche stratifiée de mise à l’échelle des interventions de lutte contre le paludisme en Côte d’Ivoire et consolidation des acquis. Abidjan: Ministère de La Santé et l’Hygiène Publique. 149 p., 2014

[68] Paaijmans, K. P.; Huijben, S. Taking the ‘I’ out of LLINs: using insecticides in vector control tools other than long-lasting nets to fight malaria, Malaria Journal, Volume 19 (2020) no. 1 | DOI

[69] Pedersen, T. L. patchwork: The Composer of Plots, 2019

[70] Porciani, A.; Diop, M.; Moiroux, N.; Kadoke-Lambi, T.; Cohuet, A.; Chandre, F.; Dormont, L.; Pennetier, C. Influence of pyrethroïd-treated bed net on host seeking behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s. carrying the kdr allele, PLOS ONE, Volume 12 (2017) no. 7, p. e0164518 | DOI

[71] QGIS Development Team QGIS Geographic Information System, QGIS Association, 2021 (

[72] R Core Team R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2018 (

[73] R Studio Team RStudio: Integrated Development Environment for R, RStudio, PBC., Boston, MA, 2020 (

[74] Ranson, H.; Jensen, B.; Vulule, J. M.; Wang, X.; Hemingway, J.; Collins, F. H. Identification of a point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Kenyan Anopheles gambiae associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, Insect Molecular Biology, Volume 9 (2000) no. 5, pp. 491-497 | DOI

[75] Reid, M. C.; McKenzie, F. E. The contribution of agricultural insecticide use to increasing insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors, Malaria Journal, Volume 15 (2016) no. 1 | DOI

[76] Riveron, J. M.; Tchouakui, M.; Mugenzi, L.; Menze, B. D.; Chiang, M.-C.; Wondji, C. S. Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors: An Update at a Global Scale, Towards Malaria Elimination - A Leap Forward, InTech, 2018 | DOI

[77] Sanou, A.; Nelli, L.; Guelbéogo, W. M.; Cissé, F.; Tapsoba, M.; Ouédraogo, P.; Sagnon, N.; Ranson, H.; Matthiopoulos, J.; Ferguson, H. M. Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso, Scientific Reports, Volume 11 (2021) no. 1, p. 17569 | DOI

[78] Sherrard-Smith, E.; Skarp, J. E.; Beale, A. D.; Fornadel, C.; Norris, L. C.; Moore, S. J.; Mihreteab, S.; Charlwood, J. D.; Bhatt, S.; Winskill, P.; Griffin, J. T.; Churcher, T. S. Mosquito feeding behavior and how it influences residual malaria transmission across Africa, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 116 (2019) no. 30, pp. 15086-15095 | DOI

[79] Shmueli, G. To Explain or to Predict?, Statistical Science, Volume 25 (2010) no. 3, pp. 289-310 | DOI

[80] Shmueli, G.; Koppius, O. Predictive Analytics in Information Systems Research, SSRN Electronic Journal (2010) | DOI

[81] Snow, R. W.; Gilles, H. M. The epidemiology of malaria In: Essential Malariology, 4Ed. , Volume 4, CRC Press (2002), pp. 85-106

[82] Sokhna, C.; Ndiath, M. O.; Rogier, C. The changes in mosquito vector behaviour and the emerging resistance to insecticides will challenge the decline of malaria, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 19 (2013) no. 10, pp. 902-907 | DOI

[83] Soma, D. D.; Zogo, B.; Taconet, P.; Somé, A.; Coulibaly, S.; Baba-Moussa, L.; Ouédraogo, G. A.; Koffi, A.; Pennetier, C.; Dabiré, K. R.; Moiroux, N. Quantifying and characterizing hourly human exposure to malaria vectors bites to address residual malaria transmission during dry and rainy seasons in rural Southwest Burkina Faso, BMC Public Health, Volume 21 (2021) no. 1 | DOI

[84] Soma, D.; Zogo, B.; Taconet, P.; Mouline, K.; Alou, L. P. A.; Dabiré, R. K.; Koffi, A. A.; Pennetier, C.; Moiroux, N. Anopheles collections in the health districts of Korhogo (Côte d'Ivoire) and Diébougou (Burkina Faso) (2016-2018), IRD - Institute of Research for Development. Sampling event dataset., 2023 | DOI

[85] Soma, D. D.; Zogo, B. M.; Somé, A.; Tchiekoi, B. N.; Hien, D. F. d. S.; Pooda, H. S.; Coulibaly, S.; Gnambani, J. E.; Ouari, A.; Mouline, K.; Dahounto, A.; Ouédraogo, G. A.; Fournet, F.; Koffi, A. A.; Pennetier, C.; Moiroux, N.; Dabiré, R. K. Anopheles bionomics, insecticide resistance and malaria transmission in southwest Burkina Faso: A pre-intervention study, PLOS ONE, Volume 15 (2020) no. 8 | DOI

[86] Taconet, P.; Dabiré, R. K.; Moiroux, N. Land use land cover very high resolution map (1.5-m) for the area of Diébougou, Burkina Faso, 2018, Datasuds, V2, 2023 | DOI

[87] Taconet, P.; Koffi Amanan, A.; Moiroux, N. Land use land cover very high resolution map (1.5-m) for the area of Korhogo, Côte d'Ivoire, 2018, DataSuds, V2, 2023 | DOI

[88] Taconet, P.; Porciani, A.; Soma, D. D.; Mouline, K.; Simard, F.; Koffi, A. A.; Pennetier, C.; Dabiré, R. K.; Mangeas, M.; Moiroux, N. Data-driven and interpretable machine-learning modeling to explore the fine-scale environmental determinants of malaria vectors biting rates in rural Burkina Faso, Parasites & Vectors, Volume 14 (2021) no. 1 | DOI

[89] Taconet, P.; Soma, D. D.; Zogo, B.; Mouline, K.; Simard, F.; Koffi, A. A.; Dabiré, R. K.; Pennetier, C.; Moiroux, N. Anopheles sampling collections in the health districts of Korhogo (Côte d’Ivoire) and Diébougou (Burkina Faso) between 2016 and 2018, Gigabyte (2023) | DOI

[90] Taconet, P.; Soma, D. D.; Zogo, B.; Mouline, K.; Simard, F.; Koffi Amanan, A.; Dabiré, R. K.; Pennetier, C.; Moiroux, N. Data and code for: Physiological and behavioural resistance of malaria vectors in rural West-Africa: a data mining study to adress their fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity, drivers, and predictability, DataSuds, V2, 2023 | DOI

[91] Taconet, P.; Soma, D. D.; Zogo, B.; Mouline, K.; Simard, F.; Koffi Amanan, A.; Dabiré, R. K.; Pennetier, C.; Moiroux, N. Supplementary information for: Physiological and behavioural resistance of malaria vectors in rural West-Africa: a data mining study to adress their fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity, drivers, and predictability, DataSuds, V2, 2023 | DOI

[92] Townson, H. The biology of mosquitoes. Volume 1. Development, nutrition and reproduction. By A.N. Clements. (London: Chapman & Hall, 1992). viii + 509 pp. Hard cover £50. ISBN 0-412-40180-0, Bulletin of Entomological Research, Volume 83 (1993) no. 2, pp. 307-308 | DOI

[93] Tyagi, S.; Mittal, S. Sampling Approaches for Imbalanced Data Classification Problem in Machine Learning, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2019, pp. 209-221 | DOI

[94] Voeten, C. C. buildmer: Stepwise Elimination and Term Reordering for Mixed-Effects Regression, R package, 2020 (

[95] WHO World malaria report 2022, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2022 (

[96] WHO WHO Global vector control response 2017–2030, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017

[97] Wan, Z.; Hook, S.; Hulley, G. MOD11A1 MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006. type: dataset, 2015 | DOI

[98] Wan, Z.; Hook, S.; Hulley, G. MYD11A1 MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006. type: dataset, 2015 | DOI

[99] Weill, M.; Malcolm, C.; Chandre, F.; Mogensen, K.; Berthomieu, A.; Marquine, M.; Raymond, M. The unique mutation in ace-1 giving high insecticide resistance is easily detectable in mosquito vectors, Insect Molecular Biology, Volume 13 (2004) no. 1, pp. 1-7 | DOI

[100] Wickham, H. tidyverse: Easily Install and Load the 'Tidyverse', R package version 1.2.1, 2017 (

[101] Wickham, H. ggplot2, Springer, New York, NY, 2009 | DOI

[102] Wright, M. N.; Ziegler, A. ranger: A Fast Implementation of Random Forests for High Dimensional Data in C++ and R, Journal of Statistical Software, Volume 77 (2017) no. 1, pp. 1-17 | DOI

[103] Yadouleton, A.; Martin, T.; Padonou, G.; Chandre, F.; Asidi, A.; Djogbenou, L.; Dabiré, R.; Aïkpon, R.; Boko, M.; Glitho, I.; Akogbeto, M. Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin, Parasites & Vectors, Volume 4 (2011) no. 1 | DOI

[104] Yan, Y. MLmetrics: Machine Learning Evaluation Metrics, R package version 1.1.1, 2016 (

[105] Zalucki, M.; Furlong, M. Behavior as a mechanism of insecticide resistance: evaluation of the evidence, Current opinion in insect science, Volume 21 (2017), pp. 19-25 | DOI

[106] Zhao, Q.; Hastie, T. Causal Interpretations of Black-Box Models, Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Volume 39 (2021) no. 1, pp. 272-281 | DOI

[107] Zogo, B.; Koffi, A. A.; Alou, L. P. A.; Fournet, F.; Dahounto, A.; Dabiré, R. K.; Baba-Moussa, L.; Moiroux, N.; Pennetier, C. Identification and characterization of Anopheles spp. breeding habitats in the Korhogo area in northern Côte d'Ivoire: a study prior to a Bti-based larviciding intervention, Parasites & Vectors, Volume 12 (2019) no. 1, p. 146 | DOI

[108] Zogo, B.; Soma, D. D.; Tchiekoi, B. N.; Somé, A.; Ahoua Alou, L. P.; Koffi, A. A.; Fournet, F.; Dahounto, A.; Coulibaly, B.; Kandé, S.; Dabiré, R. K.; Baba-Moussa, L.; Moiroux, N.; Pennetier, C. Anopheles bionomics, insecticide resistance mechanisms, and malaria transmission in the Korhogo area, northern Côte d’Ivoire: a pre-intervention study, Parasite, Volume 26 (2019), p. 40 | DOI

Cited by Sources: