Evolutionary Biology

Artisanal and farmer bread making practices differently shape fungal species community composition in French sourdoughs

10.24072/pcjournal.237 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e11.

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Preserving microbial diversity in food systems is one of the many challenges to be met to achieve food security and quality. Although industrialization led to the selection and spread of specific fermenting microbial strains, there are still ongoing artisanal processes that may allow the conservation of a wider species diversity and genetic diversity. We examined whether the diversity of artisanal practices could lead to an increased level in fungal species diversity for bread making. We used an interdisciplinary participatory research approach including bakers, psycho-sociologists and microbiologists to analyze French bread making practices and describe fungal communities in naturally fermented sourdough of 27 bakers and 12 farmer bakers. Bread making practices were classified in two groups: the farmer-like practice group and the artisanal-like practice group. The well-known bakery yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was dominant (i.e. with a relative abundance over 50%) in only 24% of sourdoughs while other yeast species, belonging to the Kazachstania genus, were dominant in 54% of sourdoughs. Bread making practices were found to drive the distribution of fungal species across sourdoughs. The most striking bread making practice effect was the occurrence of Kazachstania humilis in sourdoughs made with artisanal-like practices and the occurrence of Kazachstania bulderi in sourdoughs made with farmer-like practices. Phenotypic divergences between sourdough and non-sourdough strains were found for K. humilis but not for K. bulderi. Overall, our results showed that preserving bread making practice diversity allows the preservation of a higher species and phenotypic diversity in microbial communities.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.237
Michel, Elisa 1, 2; Masson, Estelle 3; Bubbendorf, Sandrine 3; Lapicque, Léocadie 3; Nidelet, Thibault 1; Segond, Diego 1; Guézenec, Stéphane 1; Marlin, Thérèse 1; Devillers, Hugo 1; Rué, Olivier 4, 5; Onno, Bernard 2; Legrand, Judith 6; Sicard, Delphine 1

1 SPO, Univ Montpellier, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France
2 Oniris, Laboratoire MicrobioTech, UMR GEPEA 6144, Rue de la Géraudière CS 82225, 44322, Nantes, France
3 Laboratoire de Psychologie : Cognition, Comportement, Communication – EA 1285, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 20 rue Duquesne, CS 93837, F-29238, Brest, France
4 Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, MaIAGE, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France
5 Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, BioinfOmics, MIGALE bioinformatics facility, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France
6 Génétique Quantitative et Evolution-Le Moulon, Université Paris-Sud, INRAE, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 91190, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
@article{10_24072_pcjournal_237,
     author = {Michel, Elisa and Masson, Estelle and Bubbendorf, Sandrine and Lapicque, L\'eocadie and Nidelet, Thibault and Segond, Diego and Gu\'ezenec, St\'ephane and Marlin, Th\'er\`ese and Devillers, Hugo and Ru\'e, Olivier and Onno, Bernard and Legrand, Judith and Sicard, Delphine},
     title = {Artisanal and farmer bread making practices differently shape fungal species community composition in {French} sourdoughs},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e11},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {3},
     year = {2023},
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Michel, Elisa; Masson, Estelle; Bubbendorf, Sandrine; Lapicque, Léocadie; Nidelet, Thibault; Segond, Diego; Guézenec, Stéphane; Marlin, Thérèse; Devillers, Hugo; Rué, Olivier; Onno, Bernard; Legrand, Judith; Sicard, Delphine. Artisanal and farmer bread making practices differently shape fungal species community composition in French sourdoughs. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e11. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.237. https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.237/

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.evolbiol.100154

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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