The distribution, phenology, host range and pathogen prevalence of Ixodes ricinus in France: a systematic map and narrative review

10.24072/pcjournal.291 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e81.

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The tick Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector species of infectious diseases in European France. Understanding its distribution, phenology, and host species use, along with the distribution and prevalence of associated pathogens at a national scale is essential for developing prevention strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic map and narrative review of the existing knowledge on the eco-epidemiology of I. ricinus in France. Using literature published up to 2020, the present paper provides a distribution map for the species and a summary of environmental factors explaining observed geographical differences in phenology and temporal differences in abundance. The diversity of vertebrate host species used by this tick, along with their degree of infestation when available, are presented and discussed with respect to their potential contribution to the population dynamics of I. ricinus and the circulation of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Prevalence data of detected pathogens are summarised in different maps. Results from 187 identified references show that the species is present in most departments, but scarce under Mediterranean climates and in coastal habitats. Its phenology is generally bimodal with climate-associated variations. Abundance seems positively influenced by forest cover and host abundance. Rodents and ruminants are the most studied species groups, but the diversity of sampling protocols (e.g., location, season, exhaustivity of inspection) precluded direct comparisons between groups. Data on pathogens are patchy, with most studies conducted near research laboratories. Among pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the most examined and seems most prevalent in north-eastern and central France. The review highlights the gaps in our knowledge of tick-host-pathogen interactions, their ecologies and their distributions, and demonstrates the need to address these gaps in order to optimize tick and tick-borne diseases prevention and control.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.291
Keywords: Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Francisella, Theileria, Rickettsia, tick-borne encephalitis virus, hard tick, tick-borne diseases
Perez, Grégoire 1, 2, 3; Bournez, Laure 4; Boulanger, Nathalie 5, 6; Fite, Johanna 7; Livoreil, Barbara 8; McCoy, Karen D. 9; Quillery, Elsa 7; René-Martellet, Magalie 10, 11; Bonnet, Sarah I. 12

1 UMR 0956 BIPAR, Ecole nationale vétérinaire d’Alfort – ANSES – INRAE, 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
2 UMR 5558 LBBE, université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 – VetAgro Sup – CNRS, 69622 Villeurbanne, France
3 Laboratoire Cogitamus
4 Laboratoire de la rage et de la faune sauvage de Nancy, ANSES, 54220 Malzéville, France
5 UR 7290 Virulence bactérienne précoce, FMTS, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France
6 Centre National de Référence Borrelia, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67000 Strasbourg, France
7 Direction de l’Évaluation des Risques, ANSES, 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
8 Evidence synthesis consultant, Collaboration for Environmental Evidence France, 83340 Le Luc en Provence, France
9 University of Montpellier-CNRS-IRD, UMR MiVEGEC, 34294 Montpellier, France
10 UMR EPIA, Université de Lyon – INRAE – VetAgro Sup, 69280 Marcy l’Etoile, France
11 UMR EPIA, Université Clermont Auvergne – INRAE – VetAgro Sup, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
12 Unité Écologie et Émergence des Pathogènes Transmis par les Arthropodes, Institut Pasteur, Université Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 2000, INRAE USC 1510, Paris, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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     title = {The distribution, phenology, host range and pathogen prevalence of {\protect\emph{Ixodes} ricinus} in {France:} a systematic map and narrative review},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
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Perez, Grégoire; Bournez, Laure; Boulanger, Nathalie; Fite, Johanna; Livoreil, Barbara; McCoy, Karen D.; Quillery, Elsa; René-Martellet, Magalie; Bonnet, Sarah I. The distribution, phenology, host range and pathogen prevalence of Ixodes ricinus in France: a systematic map and narrative review. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e81. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.291.

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.infections.100076

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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