Forest & Wood Sciences

Pollen contamination and mating structure in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) clonal seed orchards revealed by SNP markers

10.24072/pcjournal.302 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e68.

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Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is a major forest tree species in south-western Europe. In France, an advanced breeding program for this conifer species has been underway since the early 1960s. Open-pollinated seed orchards currently supply more than 90% of maritime pine seedlings for plantation forestry. However, pollen contamination and mating structure have been poorly studied in such seed orchards whereas they could impact genetic gains and diversity. We analyzed these features in three maritime pine clonal seed orchards. We addressed biological (tree genotype, age, flowering phenology) and environmental factors (vicinity with external pollen sources, orchard structure, soil type, climatic conditions) that are expected to determine the genetic composition of seed lots. Genetic analyses were based on an optimized set of 60 SNP markers and performed on 2,552 seedlings with Cervus software (likelihood inference methodology). Pollen contamination rates were highly variable between seed lots (from 20 to 96%), with a mean value of 50%. Interpretative factors included the distance between the seed orchard and external pollen sources, rain during the pollination period, seed orchard age, soil conditions and seed parent identity. All parental genotypes from the seed orchards contributed to the offspring as pollen parents, but differences in paternal reproductive success were detected. Finally, the overall self-fertilization rate was estimated at 5.4%, with considerable variability between genotypes (from 0% to 26%). These findings are useful to formulate recommendations for seed orchard management (seed orchard location, soil and climate optimal conditions, minimum age for commercial seed lots harvesting) and for identifying new research perspectives (exploring links between pollen contamination and climatic data, genetic control of flowering traits).

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.302
Keywords: Pollen contamination, paternity reconstruction, SNP markers, Pinus pinaster Ait., clonal seed orchard
Bouffier, Laurent 1; Debille, Sandrine 2; Alazard, Pierre 3; Raffin, Annie 4; Pastuszka, Patrick 4; Trontin, Jean-François 2

1 INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, BIOGECO, F-33610 Cestas, France
2 FCBA, BioForBois, Pôle Industrie Bois & Construction, F-33610 Cestas, France
3 FCBA, Pôle Biotechnologie et Sylviculture avancée, F-33610 Cestas, France
4 INRAE, UEFP, F-33610 Cestas, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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     title = {Pollen contamination and mating structure in maritime pine {(\protect\emph{Pinus} pinaster} {Ait.)} clonal seed orchards revealed by {SNP} markers},
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Bouffier, Laurent; Debille, Sandrine; Alazard, Pierre; Raffin, Annie; Pastuszka, Patrick; Trontin, Jean-François. Pollen contamination and mating structure in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) clonal seed orchards revealed by SNP markers. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e68. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.302.

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.forestwoodsci.100109

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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