Forest & Wood Sciences

Modelling the growth stress in tree branches: eccentric growth vs. reaction wood

10.24072/pcjournal.308 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e78.

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This work aims to model the mechanical processes used by tree branches to control their posture despite their increasing weight loading. The two known options for a branch to maintain its orientation are the asymmetry of maturation stress, including reaction wood formation, and eccentric radial growth. Both options can be observed in nature and influence the stress distribution developed in the branch each year. This so-called "growth stress" reflects the mechanical state of the branch. In this work, a growth stress model was developed at the cross-section level in order to quantify and study the biomechanical impact of each process. For illustration, this model was applied to branches of two 50-year-old trees, one softwood Pinus pinaster, and one hardwood Prunus avium (wild cherry tree), both simulated with the AmapSim discrete element software. For the wild cherry tree, the computed outputs highlighted that the eccentricity of radial growth seems to be as efficient as the formation of reaction wood to maintain postural control despite the increasing gravity. For the pine tree, eccentric radial growth appears to be less efficient than the formation of reaction wood. But although it does not necessarily act as a relevant lever for postural control, it greatly modifies the profile pattern of mechanical stress and could provide mechanical safety of the branch. This work opens experimental perspectives to understand the biomechanical processes involved in the formation of branches and their mechanical safety.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.308
Van Rooij, Arnoul 1, 2; Badel, Eric 1; Barczi, Jean-François 3; Caraglio, Yves 3; Almeras, Tancrede 4; Gril, Joseph 1, 2

1 Laboratoire de Physique et Physiologie Intégratives de l’Arbre en environnement Fluctuant, Site INRAE Crouël : 5 Chemin de Beaulieu, 63039 Clermont-Ferrand, France // Site Clermont : 1 Impasse Amélie Murat, 63178 Aubière, France
2 Institut Pascal, Campus Universitaire des Cézeaux, 4 avenue Blaise Pascal, TSA 60026 / CS 60026, 63178 Aubière Cedex, France
3 Botanique et Modélisation de l'Architecture des Plantes et des Végétations, Bd de la Lironde TA A-51/ PS 2 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France
4 LMGC, CNRS, Université of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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Van Rooij, Arnoul; Badel, Eric; Barczi, Jean-François; Caraglio, Yves; Almeras, Tancrede; Gril, Joseph. Modelling the growth stress in tree branches: eccentric growth vs. reaction wood. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e78. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.308.

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.forestwoodsci.100108

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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