Section: Registered Reports
Topic: Health sciences

Life Thinning and Gaming Disorder: A Longitudinal Qualitative Registered Report

10.24072/pcjournal.313 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e83.

Get full text PDF Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI

The academic debates regarding the psychiatric relevance of gaming disorder continue largely because the lived experiences of treatment-seekers remain mostly unstudied. This registered report addresses the above research gap with a longitudinal design that pursues a comparative descriptive understanding of how intensive gaming experiences evolve in both clinical and non-clinical life situations. Accompanied by a rich health survey, interpretative phenomenological analysis was adapted to understand in-depth interview data from treatment-seeking (n=5) and esports-playing (n=4) participants, the latter of which did not experience any gaming-related health problems. The interviews were carried out as a 1-year follow-up. The study finds intensive relationships with gaming to be experienced through multidimensional cyclicality. For treatment-seekers, this manifests as a shift in problem processing that involves a search for new gaming and life meanings; meanwhile, for esports-playing participants, the meanings of gaming evolve and can rapidly adapt to unexpected life events. We propose life thinningand resilience integration processes as working models that can help better describe and theoretically explain how some individuals end up seeking gaming-related treatment, whereas for others gaming continues to be part of their identity and resilience. The findings call for more qualitative registered reports with treatment-seekers and other intensively gaming people from different cultures to better understand the spectrum of intensive gaming phenomenologically—and specifically, what it means for people to seek treatment for their gaming.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.313
Type: Research article
Karhulahti, Veli-Matti 1; Siutila, Miia 1, 2; Vahlo, Jukka 1, 3; Koskimaa, Raine 1

1 University of Jyväskylä, Department of Music, Art and Culture Studies, Finland
2 University of Turku, Department of Media Studies, Finland
3 University of Turku, Centre for Collaborative Research, Finland
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
Web-published in collaboration with: UGA Éditions
@article{10_24072_pcjournal_313,
     author = {Karhulahti, Veli-Matti and Siutila, Miia and Vahlo, Jukka and Koskimaa, Raine},
     title = {Life {Thinning} and {Gaming} {Disorder:} {A} {Longitudinal} {Qualitative} {Registered} {Report}},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e83},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {3},
     year = {2023},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.313},
     language = {en},
     url = {https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.313/}
}
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Karhulahti, Veli-Matti
AU  - Siutila, Miia
AU  - Vahlo, Jukka
AU  - Koskimaa, Raine
TI  - Life Thinning and Gaming Disorder: A Longitudinal Qualitative Registered Report
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2023
VL  - 3
PB  - Peer Community In
UR  - https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.313/
DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.313
LA  - en
ID  - 10_24072_pcjournal_313
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%A Karhulahti, Veli-Matti
%A Siutila, Miia
%A Vahlo, Jukka
%A Koskimaa, Raine
%T Life Thinning and Gaming Disorder: A Longitudinal Qualitative Registered Report
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2023
%V 3
%I Peer Community In
%U https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.313/
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.313
%G en
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_313
Karhulahti, Veli-Matti; Siutila, Miia; Vahlo, Jukka; Koskimaa, Raine. Life Thinning and Gaming Disorder: A Longitudinal Qualitative Registered Report. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e83. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.313. https://peercommunityjournal.org/articles/10.24072/pcjournal.313/

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.rr.100466

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

[1] Aho, K. Medicalizing Mental Health: A Phenomenological Alternative, Journal of Medical Humanities, Volume 29 (2008) no. 4, pp. 243-259 | DOI

[2] American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5, 5, American psychiatric association, Washington DC, 2013 no. 5

[3] American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision: DSM-5-TR, American psychiatric association, Washington, DC, 2022

[4] Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change., Psychological Review, Volume 84 (1977) no. 2, pp. 191-215 | DOI

[5] Benarous, X.; Morales, P.; Mayer, H.; Iancu, C.; Edel, Y.; Cohen, D. Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescents With Psychiatric Disorder: Two Case Reports Using a Developmental Framework, Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 10 (2019) | DOI

[6] Birt, L.; Scott, S.; Cavers, D.; Campbell, C.; Walter, F. Member Checking, Qualitative Health Research, Volume 26 (2016) no. 13, pp. 1802-1811 | DOI

[7] Bleckmann, P.; Jukschat, N. The integrated model of (Dys-) functionality: Reconstructing patterns of gaming as self-medication in biographical interviews with video game addicts In: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, Volume 16 (2015) no. 3 | DOI

[8] Bourne, A. H.; Robson, M. A. Participants’ reflections on being interviewed about risk and sexual behaviour: implications for collection of qualitative data on sensitive topics, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, Volume 18 (2013) no. 1, pp. 105-116 | DOI

[9] Brevers, D.; King, D. L.; Billieux, J. Delineating adaptive esports involvement from maladaptive gaming: a self-regulation perspective, Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 36 (2020), pp. 141-146 | DOI

[10] Carragher, N.; Billieux, J.; Bowden‐Jones, H.; Achab, S.; Potenza, M. N.; Rumpf, H.; Long, J.; Demetrovics, Z.; Gentile, D.; Hodgins, D.; Aricak, O. T.; Baigent, M.; Gandin, C.; Rahimi‐Movaghar, A.; Scafato, E.; Assanangkornchai, S.; Siste, K.; Hao, W.; King, D. L.; Saunders, J.; Higuchi, S.; Poznyak, V. Brief overview of the WHO Collaborative Project on the Development of New International Screening and Diagnostic Instruments for Gaming Disorder and Gambling Disorder, Addiction, Volume 117 (2022) no. 7, pp. 2119-2121 | DOI

[11] Chambers, C. The lived experience of gamers: a comparative qualitative investigation of treatment-seekers and esports players, Peer Community in Registered Reports (2022) | DOI

[12] Chambers, C. How do intensive gaming experiences evolve over time in clinical and non-clinical contexts?, Peer Community in Registered Reports (2023) | DOI

[13] Colder Carras, M. C. Video Game Play, Social Interactions And Friendship Quality In Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis, Doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University (2015) (https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/39616)

[14] Colder Carras, M.; Shi, J.; Hard, G.; Saldanha, I. J. Evaluating the quality of evidence for gaming disorder: A summary of systematic reviews of associations between gaming disorder and depression or anxiety, PLOS ONE, Volume 15 (2020) no. 10 | DOI

[15] Consalvo, M. Cheating: Gaining advantage in videogames, The MIT Press, 2007 | DOI

[16] Davidson, B. I.; Shaw, H.; Ellis, D. A. Fuzzy constructs in technology usage scales, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 133 (2022) | DOI

[17] Deci, E. L.; Ryan, R. M. Motivation, Personality, and Development Within Embedded Social Contexts: An Overview of Self-Determination Theory, The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation, Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 85-108 | DOI

[18] Dewey J. Essays in Experimental Logic, Project Gutenberg, 2012 [1916] (https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/40794)

[19] Di Paolo, E.; Thompson, E. The Enactive Approach, The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition, Routledge | DOI

[20] Dullur, P.; Starcevic, V. Internet gaming disorder does not qualify as a mental disorder, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 52 (2017) no. 2, pp. 110-111 | DOI

[21] Farr, J.; Nizza, I. E. Longitudinal Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (LIPA): A review of studies and methodological considerations, Qualitative Research in Psychology, Volume 16 (2019) no. 2, pp. 199-217 | DOI

[22] Ferguson, C. J.; Colwell, J. Lack of consensus among scholars on the issue of video game “addiction”., Psychology of Popular Media, Volume 9 (2020) no. 3, pp. 359-366 | DOI

[23] Fuchs, T. Temporality and psychopathology, Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, Volume 12 (2010) no. 1, pp. 75-104 | DOI

[24] Gadamer, H.-G. Truth and method. 2nd Edition, Continuum. , 1960/2004

[25] Gebauer, L.; LaBrie, R.; Shaffer, H. J. Optimizing DSM-IV-TR Classification Accuracy: A Brief Biosocial Screen for Detecting Current Gambling Disorders among Gamblers in the General Household Population, The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 55 (2010) no. 2, pp. 82-90 | DOI

[26] Granic, I.; Morita, H.; Scholten, H. Beyond Screen Time: Identity Development in the Digital Age, Psychological Inquiry, Volume 31 (2020) no. 3, pp. 195-223 | DOI

[27] Griffiths, M. A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework, Journal of Substance Use, Volume 10 (2009) no. 4, pp. 191-197 | DOI

[28] Gruber, J.; Hagerty, S.; Mennin, D.; Gross, J. J. Mind the Gap? Emotion Regulation Ability and Achievement in Psychological Health Disorders, Journal of Emotion and Psychopathology, Volume 1 (2023) no. 1, pp. 1-7 | DOI

[29] Götzenbrucker, G.; Köhl, M. Ten years later, Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, Volume 3 (2009) no. 2, pp. 309-324 | DOI

[30] Haslam, N. Kinds of Kinds: A Conceptual Taxonomy of Psychiatric Categories, Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, Volume 9 (2002) no. 3, pp. 203-217 | DOI

[31] Hays, R. D.; Schalet, B. D.; Spritzer, K. L.; Cella, D. Two-item PROMIS® global physical and mental health scales, Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes, Volume 1 (2017) no. 1 | DOI

[32] Heyman, G. M. Addiction: A disorder of choice, Harvard University Press, 2009

[33] Huta, V.; Ryan, R. M. Pursuing Pleasure or Virtue: The Differential and Overlapping Well-Being Benefits of Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives, Journal of Happiness Studies, Volume 11 (2009) no. 6, pp. 735-762 | DOI

[34] Ilmarinen, J. The Work Ability Index (WAI), Occupational Medicine, Volume 57 (2006) no. 2, p. 160-160 | DOI

[35] Karhulahti, V.-M.; Siutila, M.; Koskimaa, R.; Vahlo, J. Gaming at the Workplace: Phenomenology and Health. Project, 2023 | DOI

[36] Karhulahti, V.-M. Esport Play: Anticipation, Attachment, and Addiction in Psycholudic Development, Bloomsbury Academic, 2020 | DOI

[37] Karhulahti, V.-M.; Behm, S.; Lukka, L. Why do adults seek treatment for gaming (disorder)? A qualitative study, Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, Volume 10 (2023) no. 1 | DOI

[38] Karhulahti, V.-M.; Koskimaa, R. On the Prevalence of Addicted or Problematic Gaming in Finland, Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 10 (2019) | DOI

[39] Karhulahti, V.-M.; Siutila, M.; Vahlo, J.; Koskimaa, R. Phenomenological Strands for Gaming Disorder and Esports Play: A Qualitative Registered Report, Collabra: Psychology, Volume 8 (2022) no. 1 | DOI

[40] Karhulahti, V.-M.; Vahlo, J.; Martončik, M.; Munukka, M.; Koskimaa, R.; von Bonsdorff, M. Ontological diversity in gaming disorder measurement: a nationally representative registered report, Addiction Research & Theory, Volume 31 (2022) no. 3, pp. 157-167 | DOI

[41] Karlsen, F. A world of excesses: Online games and excessive playing, Routledge, 2013

[42] Kirkpatrick, G. Computer Games and the Social Imaginary, Polity Press, 2013

[43] Király, O.; Billieux, J.; King, D. L.; Urbán, R.; Koncz, P.; Polgár, E.; Demetrovics, Z. A comprehensive model to understand and assess the motivational background of video game use: The Gaming Motivation Inventory (GMI), Journal of Behavioral Addictions, Volume 11 (2022) no. 3, pp. 796-819 | DOI

[44] Király, O.; Sleczka, P.; Pontes, H. M.; Urbán, R.; Griffiths, M. D.; Demetrovics, Z. Validation of the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) and evaluation of the nine DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder criteria, Addictive Behaviors, Volume 64 (2017), pp. 253-260 | DOI

[45] Kleinman, A. Culture and Depression, New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 351 (2004) no. 10, pp. 951-953 | DOI

[46] Konkolÿ Thege, B.; Woodin, E. M.; Hodgins, D. C.; Williams, R. J. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study, BMC Psychiatry, Volume 15 (2015) no. 1 | DOI

[47] Kujanpää, T.; Ylisaukko-Oja, T.; Jokelainen, J.; Hirsikangas, S.; Kanste, O.; Kyngäs, H.; Timonen, M. Prevalence of anxiety disorders among Finnish primary care high utilizers and validation of Finnish translation of GAD-7 and GAD-2 screening tools, Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, Volume 32 (2014) no. 2, pp. 78-83 | DOI

[48] Kuula, A. Methodological and ethical dilemmas of archiving qualitative data, IASSIST Quarterly, Volume 34 ( 2011) no. 3-4, pp. 12-17 (https://iassistquarterly.com/public/pdfs/iqvol34_35_kuula.pdf)

[49] Larkin, M.; Thompson, A. R. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in Mental Health and Psychotherapy Research, Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health and Psychotherapy, 2011, pp. 99-116 | DOI

[50] Larsen, R. R.; Maschião, L. F.; Piedade, V. L.; Messas, G.; Hastings, J. More phenomenology in psychiatry? Applied ontology as a method towards integration, The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 9 (2022) no. 9, pp. 751-758 | DOI

[51] Lemmens, J. S.; Valkenburg, P. M.; Peter, J. Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents, Media Psychology, Volume 12 (2009) no. 1, pp. 77-95 | DOI

[52] Lobel, A.; Engels, R. C. M. E.; Stone, L. L.; Burk, W. J.; Granic, I. Video Gaming and Children’s Psychosocial Wellbeing: A Longitudinal Study, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Volume 46 (2017) no. 4, pp. 884-897 | DOI

[53] McCoy, L. K. Longitudinal qualitative research and interpretative phenomenological analysis: philosophical connections and practical considerations, Qualitative Research in Psychology, Volume 14 (2017) no. 4, pp. 442-458 | DOI

[54] McCrory, E.; Foulkes, L.; Viding, E. Social thinning and stress generation after childhood maltreatment: a neurocognitive social transactional model of psychiatric vulnerability, The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 9 (2022) no. 10, pp. 828-837 | DOI

[55] McLean, K. C.; Syed, M.; Pasupathi, M.; Adler, J. M.; Dunlop, W. L.; Drustrup, D.; Fivush, R.; Graci, M. E.; Lilgendahl, J. P.; Lodi-Smith, J.; McAdams, D. P.; McCoy, T. P. The empirical structure of narrative identity: The initial Big Three., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 119 (2020) no. 4, pp. 920-944 | DOI

[56] Mihara, S.; Higuchi, S. Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of Internet gaming disorder: A systematic review of the literature, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Volume 71 (2017) no. 7, pp. 425-444 | DOI

[57] Molenaar, P. C. M. A Manifesto on Psychology as Idiographic Science: Bringing the Person Back Into Scientific Psychology, This Time Forever, Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research & Perspective, Volume 2 (2004) no. 4, pp. 201-218 | DOI

[58] Männikkö, N.; Billieux, J.; Kääriäinen, M. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, Volume 4 (2015) no. 4, pp. 281-288 | DOI

[59] Männikkö, N.; Ruotsalainen, H.; Tolvanen, A.; Kääriäinen, M. Psychometric properties of the Internet Gaming Disorder Test ( IGDT ‐10) and problematic gaming behavior among Finnish vocational school students, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Volume 60 (2019) no. 3, pp. 252-260 | DOI

[60] Nichter, M. Idioms of distress: Alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: A case study from South India, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, Volume 5 (1981) no. 4, pp. 379-408 | DOI

[61] Nichter, M. Idioms of Distress Revisited, Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, Volume 34 (2010) no. 2, pp. 401-416 | DOI

[62] Nilsson, A.; Kuja‐Halkola, R.; Lichtenstein, P.; Larsson, H.; Lundström, S.; Fatouros‐Bergman, H.; Jayaram‐Lindström, N.; Molero, Y. The genetics of gaming: A longitudinal twin study (2023) | DOI

[63] Oishi, S.; Westgate, E. C. A psychologically rich life: Beyond happiness and meaning., Psychological Review, Volume 129 (2022) no. 4, pp. 790-811 | DOI

[64] Parr, T.; Friston, K. J. Attention or salience?, Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 29 (2019), pp. 1-5 | DOI

[65] Pasupathi, M.; Mansour, E.; Brubaker, J. Developing a Life Story: Constructing Relations between Self and Experience in Autobiographical Narratives, Human Development, Volume 50 (2007) no. 2-3, pp. 85-110 | DOI

[66] Pontes, H. M.; Király, O.; Demetrovics, Z.; Griffiths, M. D. The Conceptualisation and Measurement of DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder: The Development of the IGD-20 Test, PLoS ONE, Volume 9 (2014) no. 10 | DOI

[67] Pontes, H. M.; Schivinski, B.; Sindermann, C.; Li, M.; Becker, B.; Zhou, M.; Montag, C. Measurement and Conceptualization of Gaming Disorder According to the World Health Organization Framework: the Development of the Gaming Disorder Test, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, Volume 19 (2019) no. 2, pp. 508-528 | DOI

[68] Przybylski, A. K.; Weinstein, N.; Murayama, K. Internet Gaming Disorder: Investigating the Clinical Relevance of a New Phenomenon, American Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 174 (2017) no. 3, pp. 230-236 | DOI

[69] Pulkkinen, L. Human Development from Middle Childhood to Middle Adulthood, Routledge, London, 2017 | DOI

[70] Quandt, T.; Grueninger, H.; Wimmer, J. The Gray Haired Gaming Generation, Games and Culture, Volume 4 (2008) no. 1, pp. 27-46 | DOI

[71] Ratcliffe, M. Experiences of depression: A study in phenomenology, Oxford University Press, 2015

[72] Richard, J.; Temcheff, C. E.; Derevensky, J. L. Gaming Disorder Across the Lifespan: a Scoping Review of Longitudinal Studies, Current Addiction Reports, Volume 7 (2020) no. 4, pp. 561-587 | DOI

[73] Ropovik, I.; Martončik, M.; Babinčák, P.; Baník, G.; Vargová, L.; Adamkovič, M. Risk and protective factors for (internet) gaming disorder: A meta-analysis of pre-COVID studies, Addictive Behaviors, Volume 139 (2023) | DOI

[74] Rose, G. Sick individuals and sick populations, International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 30 (2001) no. 3, pp. 427-432 | DOI

[75] Rosfort, R. Personhood, The Oxford Handbook of Phenomenological Psychopathology, 2018, pp. 334-343 | DOI

[76] Salonen, A.; Raisamo, S. Suomalaisten rahapelaaminen 2015: Rahapelaaminen, rahapeliongelmat ja rahapelaamiseen liittyvät asenteet ja mielipiteet 15-74-vuotiailla, THL, 2015 (https://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-302-559-2)

[77] Schultheiss, O. C.; Wirth, M. M. Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation, Motivation and Action, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2018, pp. 407-451 | DOI

[78] Shi, J.; Renwick, R.; Turner, N. E.; Kirsh, B. Understanding the lives of problem gamers: The meaning, purpose, and influences of video gaming, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 97 (2019), pp. 291-303 | DOI

[79] Smith, J. A.; Larkin, M.; Flowers, P. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Theory. Method and Research, Sage, 2009

[80] Smith, J. A.; Jarman, M.; Osborn, M. Doing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and Methods, SAGE Publications Ltd, 1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom , 1999, pp. 218-240 | DOI

[81] Smith, J. A.; Jarman, M.; Osborn, M. Doing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and Methods, SAGE Publications Ltd, 1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom , 1999, pp. 218-240 | DOI

[82] Smith, K. E. Disease and decision, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Volume 142 (2022) | DOI

[83] Snodgrass, J. G.; Brewis, A.; Dengah, H. J. F.; Dressler, W. W.; Kaiser, B. N.; Kohrt, B. A.; Mendenhall, E.; Sagstetter, S.; Weaver, L. J.; Zhao, K. X. Ethnographic Methods for Identifying Cultural Concepts of Distress: Developing Reliable and Valid Measures, Field Methods, Volume 35 (2022) no. 3, pp. 175-197 | DOI

[84] Spiers, J.; Smith, J. A.; Drage, M. A longitudinal interpretative phenomenological analysis of the process of kidney recipients’ resolution of complex ambiguities within relationships with their living donors, Journal of Health Psychology, Volume 21 (2016) no. 11, pp. 2600-2611 | DOI

[85] Spitzer, R. L.; Kroenke, K.; Williams, J. B. W.; Löwe, B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Archives of Internal Medicine, Volume 166 (2006) no. 10 | DOI

[86] Steinbock, A. Genetic Phenomenology, The Oxford Handbook of Phenomenological Psychopathology, 2018, pp. 224-234 | DOI

[87] Strittmatter, E.; Parzer, P.; Brunner, R.; Fischer, G.; Durkee, T.; Carli, V.; Hoven, C. W.; Wasserman, C.; Sarchiapone, M.; Wasserman, D.; Resch, F.; Kaess, M. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 25 (2015) no. 7, pp. 725-734 | DOI

[88] Sun, A.-P.; Cash, H.; Mullen, L.; Rae, C. Factors related to the occurrence of and recovery from gaming disorder: A qualitative study., Technology, Mind, and Behavior, Volume 4 (2023) no. 1 | DOI

[89] Syed, M. Should We Care That We Changed the Meaning of Idiographic? A Call for Psychology to Embrace the Original Meaning, PsyArXiv, 2022 | DOI

[90] THL National PROMIS Centre. Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, 2021 (https://thl.fi/fi/web/toimintakyky/toimintakyvyn-arviointi/kansallinen-promis-keskus)

[91] Treadway, M. T. Computational psychiatry and the lived experience of mental illness, Nature Reviews Psychology, Volume 2 (2022) no. 2, pp. 67-68 | DOI

[92] Weinstein, N.; Przybylski, A. K.; Murayama, K. A prospective study of the motivational and health dynamics of Internet Gaming Disorder, PeerJ, Volume 5 (2017) | DOI

[93] Weinstein, N.; Przybylski, A. K.; Murayama, K. A prospective study of the motivational and health dynamics of Internet Gaming Disorder, PeerJ, Volume 5 (2017) | DOI

[94] West, R.; Brown, J. Theory of Addiction, Wiley, 2013 | DOI

[95] World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision no. 2022 (https://icd.who.int/en)

[96] van Manen, M.; Higgins, I.; van der Riet, P. A conversation with Max van Manen on phenomenology in its original sense, Nursing & Health Sciences, Volume 18 (2016) no. 1, pp. 4-7 | DOI

[97] van Rooij, A. J.; Ferguson, C. J.; Colder Carras, M.; Kardefelt-Winther, D.; Shi, J.; Aarseth, E.; Bean, A. M.; Bergmark, K. H.; Brus, A.; Coulson, M.; Deleuze, J.; Dullur, P.; Dunkels, E.; Edman, J.; Elson, M.; Etchells, P. J.; Fiskaali, A.; Granic, I.; Jansz, J.; Karlsen, F.; Kaye, L. K.; Kirsh, B.; Lieberoth, A.; Markey, P.; Mills, K. L.; Nielsen, R. K. L.; Orben, A.; Poulsen, A.; Prause, N.; Prax, P.; Quandt, T.; Schimmenti, A.; Starcevic, V.; Stutman, G.; Turner, N. E.; van Looy, J.; Przybylski, A. K. A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, Volume 7 (2018) no. 1, pp. 1-9 | DOI

Cited by Sources: