Section: Evolutionary Biology
Topic: Evolution, Genetics/Genomics, Applied biological sciences

Domestication of different varieties in the cheese-making fungus Geotrichum candidum

10.24072/pcjournal.266 - Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article no. e45.

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Domestication is an excellent model for studying adaptation processes, involving recent adaptation and diversification, convergence following adaptation to similar conditions, as well as degeneration of unused functions. Geotrichum candidum is a fungus used for cheese making and is also found in other environments such as soil and plants. By analyzing whole-genome data from 98 strains, we found that all strains isolated from cheese formed a monophyletic clade. Within the cheese clade, we identified three genetically differentiated populations and we detected footprints of recombination and admixture. The genetic diversity in the cheese clade was similar as that in the wild clade, suggesting the lack of strong bottlenecks. Commercial starter strains were scattered across the cheese clade, thus not constituting a single clonal lineage. The cheese populations were phenotypically differentiated from other populations, with a slower growth on all media, even cheese, a prominent production of typical cheese volatiles and a lower proteolytic activity. One of the cheese clusters encompassed all soft goat cheese strains, suggesting an effect of cheese-making practices on differentiation. Another of the cheese populations seemed to represent a more advanced stage of domestication, with stronger phenotypic differentiation from the wild clade, harboring much lower genetic diversity, and phenotypes more typical of cheese fungi, with denser and fluffier colonies and a greater ability of excluding cheese spoiler fungi. Cheese populations lacked two beta lactamase-like genes present in the wild clade, involved in xenobiotic clearance, and displayed higher contents of transposable elements, likely due to relaxed selection. Our findings suggest the existence of genuine domestication in G. candidum, which led to diversification into different varieties with contrasted phenotypes. Some of the traits acquired by cheese strains indicate convergence with other, distantly related fungi used for cheese maturation.

Published online:
DOI: 10.24072/pcjournal.266
Type: Research article
Bennetot, Bastien 1; Vernadet, Jean-Philippe 1; Perkins, Vincent 2; Hautefeuille, Sophie 1; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C. 1; O’Donnell, Samuel 1; Snirc, Alodie 1; Grondin, Cécile 3; Lessard, Marie-Hélène 2; Peron, Anne-Claire 4; Labrie, Steve 2; Landaud, Sophie 4; Giraud, Tatiana 1; Ropars, Jeanne 1

1 Laboratoire Ecologie Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, AgroParisTech, site IDEEV, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2 Département des sciences des aliments, Centre de recherche STELA, INAF, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
3 SPO, Univ Montpellier, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France
4 UMR SayFood, Université Paris-Saclay, INRAe, AgroParisTech, Thiverval Grignon, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
     author = {Bennetot, Bastien and Vernadet, Jean-Philippe and Perkins, Vincent and Hautefeuille, Sophie and Rodr{\'\i}guez de la Vega, Ricardo C. and O{\textquoteright}Donnell, Samuel and Snirc, Alodie and Grondin, C\'ecile and Lessard, Marie-H\'el\`ene and Peron, Anne-Claire and Labrie, Steve and Landaud, Sophie and Giraud, Tatiana and Ropars, Jeanne},
     title = {Domestication of different varieties in the cheese-making fungus {\protect\emph{Geotrichum} candidum}},
     journal = {Peer Community Journal},
     eid = {e45},
     publisher = {Peer Community In},
     volume = {3},
     year = {2023},
     doi = {10.24072/pcjournal.266},
     url = {}
AU  - Bennetot, Bastien
AU  - Vernadet, Jean-Philippe
AU  - Perkins, Vincent
AU  - Hautefeuille, Sophie
AU  - Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.
AU  - O’Donnell, Samuel
AU  - Snirc, Alodie
AU  - Grondin, Cécile
AU  - Lessard, Marie-Hélène
AU  - Peron, Anne-Claire
AU  - Labrie, Steve
AU  - Landaud, Sophie
AU  - Giraud, Tatiana
AU  - Ropars, Jeanne
TI  - Domestication of different varieties in the cheese-making fungus Geotrichum candidum
JO  - Peer Community Journal
PY  - 2023
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DO  - 10.24072/pcjournal.266
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%A Bennetot, Bastien
%A Vernadet, Jean-Philippe
%A Perkins, Vincent
%A Hautefeuille, Sophie
%A Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.
%A O’Donnell, Samuel
%A Snirc, Alodie
%A Grondin, Cécile
%A Lessard, Marie-Hélène
%A Peron, Anne-Claire
%A Labrie, Steve
%A Landaud, Sophie
%A Giraud, Tatiana
%A Ropars, Jeanne
%T Domestication of different varieties in the cheese-making fungus Geotrichum candidum
%J Peer Community Journal
%D 2023
%V 3
%I Peer Community In
%R 10.24072/pcjournal.266
%F 10_24072_pcjournal_266
Bennetot, Bastien; Vernadet, Jean-Philippe; Perkins, Vincent; Hautefeuille, Sophie; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; O’Donnell, Samuel; Snirc, Alodie; Grondin, Cécile; Lessard, Marie-Hélène; Peron, Anne-Claire; Labrie, Steve; Landaud, Sophie; Giraud, Tatiana; Ropars, Jeanne. Domestication of different varieties in the cheese-making fungus Geotrichum candidum. Peer Community Journal, Volume 3 (2023), article  no. e45. doi : 10.24072/pcjournal.266.

Peer reviewed and recommended by PCI : 10.24072/pci.evolbiol.100592

Conflict of interest of the recommender and peer reviewers:
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article.

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